Double Acting Compression Mechanism (DACM) for Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting in 33-Mode Operation

  • Byung C. JungEmail author
  • Heonjun Yoon
Regular Paper


Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has been emerged as an alternative solution for sustainable powering to electronics. It has been well known that a PZT stack operating in 33-mode has higher mechanical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and higher mechanical reliability, compared to a cantilevered PZT bimorph operating in 31-mode. However, there are two challenges to improve the output performance of a PZT stack at a low frequency environment. First, the lower tensile strength of a PZT stack compared to the compressive strength makes it difficult to fully utilize maximum strain at harsh vibration conditions. Second, the relatively high stiffness of a PZT stack prevents being resonant with a base structure vibrating at a low frequency. To solve these challenges, this study thus proposes a double acting compression mechanism (DACM)-based PVEH stack operating in 33-mode. The DACM-based PVEH stack can convert mechanical vibration into elevated two-way compressive loading. The analytic model is used to investigate the electroelastic behaviors of the DACM-based PVEH device at given vibration conditions. The comparative study is performed to verify the effectiveness of the DACM-based PVEH stack over other mechanisms. It can be concluded that the DACM-based PVEH stack enables to generate higher power with the same volume of PZT using elevated two-way compressive loading.


Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting PZT stack 33-Mode Double acting compression mechanism 

List of Symbols


Mass of a weight


Damping coefficient


Stiffness of a spring


Displacement of a damped single degree-of-freedom system


Displacement of base excitation


Maximum displacement


Maximum displacement of base excitation


Angular natural frequency


Damping ratio


Maximum compressive load applied to a PZT stack


Frequency ratio






Elastic field


Electric displacement


Elastic compliance at constant electric field


Piezoelectric coupling coefficient


Dielectric permittivity


Displacement of a PZT stack


Thickness of a piezoelectric layer


Cross-sectional area


Actuation force to a PZT stack


Electric charge


Output voltage


The number of piezoelectric layers


Length of a PZT stack


Output electric power


External electrical resistance





This research was partially supported by the Main Project of Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (Project Code: NK213E). This research was also supported by the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) grant by the Korea Government (MSIT) (No. CAP-17-04-KRISS).


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of System DynamicsKorea Institute of Machinery and MaterialsDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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