Advertisement

Current Sleep Medicine Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 104–111 | Cite as

Sleep Disorders and Chronic Orofacial Pain

  • Fernando G. ExpostoEmail author
  • Taro Arima
  • Peter Svensson
Sleep and Pain (L Ferini-Strambi, Section Editor)
  • 18 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep and Pain

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Sleep disturbances have been linked to chronic pain disorders and it has been suggested that they affect each other in a circular fashion. However, with the exception of sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorders, very little is known about the interaction between sleep and specific orofacial pain disorders. We aimed to review and evaluate the existing knowledge about the relationship between orofacial pain and sleep disorders. Furthermore, to elaborate on management options for patients with orofacial pain and sleep disorders.

Recent Findings

Orofacial pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy are reciprocally related to disturbances in sleep quality. Furthermore, in the case of temporomandibular disorders, it has been shown that sleep quality disturbances occur before pain onset. Regarding sleep bruxism, the recent literature seems to indicate that when sleep bruxism is assessed objectively (i.e., polysomnography), most sleep bruxism parameters do not seem to be able to explain temporomandibular disorder occurrence. Finally, very few studies have assessed the effect sleep quality improvement has on chronic orofacial pain parameters such as intensity and frequency.

Summary

In general, there is a lack of studies assessing the relationship between sleep disturbances and orofacial pain disorders, the exception being the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. The few studies that exist suggest an association between orofacial pain disorders and decreased sleep quality. As such, it is important that the orofacial pain clinician be aware of comorbid sleep disorders and a multidisciplinary and integrative approach should be used to manage these patients.

Keywords

Sleep Sleep bruxism Obstructive sleep apnea Orofacial pain 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Svensson reports personal fees from Sunstar Suisse, outside the submitted work. Fernando Exposto and Taro Arima each declares no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Ilfeld BM, Morey TE, Wang RD, Enneking FK. Continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block for postoperative pain control at home: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:959–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lavigne GJ, Sessle BJ. The neurobiology of orofacial pain and sleep and their interactions. J Dent Res. 2016;95:1109–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Finan PH, Goodin BR, Smith MT. The association of sleep and pain: an update and a path forward. J Pain. 2013;14:1539–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    •• Sanders AE, Akinkugbe AA, Bair E, et al. Subjective sleep quality deteriorates before development of painful temporomandibular disorder. J Pain. 2016;17:669–77. This longitudinal study shows that sleep quality is deteriorated before the occurrence of painful temporomandibular disorders and that this relationship was not mediated by pain sensitivity. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Park SJ, Yoon DM, Yoon KB, Moon JA, Kim SH. Factors associated with higher reported pain levels in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional, correlational analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0163132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sivertsen B, Lallukka T, Petrie KJ, Steingrímsdóttir ÓA, Stubhaug A, Nielsen CS. Sleep and pain sensitivity in adults. Pain. 2015;156:1433–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iacovides S, George K, Kamerman P, Baker FC. Sleep fragmentation hypersensitizes healthy young women to deep and superficial experimental pain. J Pain. 2017;18:844–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krause AJ, Prather AA, Wager TD, Lindquist MA, Walker MP. The pain of sleep loss: a brain characterization in humans. J Neurosci. 2019;39:2291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamiyama H, Iida T, Nishimori H, Kubo H, Uchiyama M, de Laat A, et al. Effect of sleep restriction on somatosensory sensitivity in the oro-facial area: an experimental controlled study. J Oral Rehabil. 2019;46:303–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nishimori H, Iida T, Kamiyama H, Honda M, Masuda M, de Laat A, et al. Effect of sleep restriction on somatosensory sensitivity including occlusal sensation in the orofacial area. J Prosthodont Res. 2019;63:193–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP, et al. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28:6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jussila P, Kiviahde H, Napankangas R, et al. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017;31:159–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    • Benoliel R, Zini A, Zakuto A, et al. Subjective sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder patients and association with disease characteristics and oral health-related quality of life. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017;31:313–22. This study shows that TMD patients have poorer subjective sleep quality than healthy controls and that sleep quality was associated with disease characteristics and comrobid pain conditions. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lei J, Fu J, Yap AU, et al. Temporomandibular disorders symptoms in Asian adolescents and their association with sleep quality and psychological distress. Cranio. 2016;34:242–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Natu VP, Yap AU, Su MH, et al. Temporomandibular disorder symptoms and their association with quality of life, emotional states and sleep quality in South-East Asian youths. J Oral Rehabil. 2018;45:756–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    •• Rener-Sitar K, John MT, Pusalavidyasagar SS, et al. Sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder cases. Sleep Med. 2016;25:105–12. This study in a large sample of TMD patients shows that they have poorer sleep quality than controls. In addition, sleep quality is associated with psychosocial status and pain-related impairment. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sanders AE, Slade GD, Bair E, Fillingim RB, Knott C, Dubner R, et al. General health status and incidence of first-onset temporomandibular disorder: the OPPERA prospective cohort study. J Pain. 2013;14:T51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dubrovsky B, Janal MN, Lavigne GJ, Sirois DA, Wigren PE, Nemelivsky L, et al. Depressive symptoms account for differences between self-reported versus polysomnographic assessment of sleep quality in women with myofascial TMD. J Oral Rehabil. 2017;44:925–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bruguiere F, Sciote JJ, Roland-Billecart T, Raoul G, Machuron F, Ferri J, et al. Pre-operative parafunctional or dysfunctional oral habits are associated with the temporomandibular disorders after orthognathic surgery: an observational cohort study. J Oral Rehabil. 2019;46:321–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Raphael KG, Janal MN, Sirois DA, Dubrovsky B, Klausner JJ, Krieger AC, et al. Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:751–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    •• Smardz J, Martynowicz H, Michalek-Zrabkowska M, et al. Sleep Bruxism and occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders-Related Pain: A Polysomnographic Study. Front Neurol. 2019;10:168. This study shows in an objective manner that TMD-related pain is not related to the intensity of sleep bruxism. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mude AH, Kawakami S, Kato S, Minagi S. Properties of tonic episodes of masseter muscle activity during waking hours and sleep in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain. J Prosthodont Res. 2018;62:234–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muzalev K, Lobbezoo F, Janal MN, Raphael KG. Interepisode sleep bruxism intervals and myofascial face pain. Sleep. 2017;40.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wei F, Van Horn MH, Coombs MC, et al. A pilot study of nocturnal temporalis muscle activity in TMD diagnostic groups of women. J Oral Rehabil. 2017;44:517–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raphael KG, Janal MN, Sirois DA, Dubrovsky B, Wigren PE, Klausner JJ, et al. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:883–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schmitter M, Kares-Vrincianu A, Kares H, Bermejo JL, Schindler HJ. Sleep-associated aspects of myofascial pain in the orofacial area among temporomandibular disorder patients and controls. Sleep Med. 2015;16:1056–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    • Shimada A, Castrillon EE, Svensson P. Revisited relationships between probable sleep bruxism and clinical muscle symptoms. J Dent. 2019;82:85–90. This study shows that high-intensity contingent electrical stimulation has an inhibitory effect on masseter muscle EMG activity during sleep but did not decrease pain-related symptoms. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Muzalev K, Visscher CM, Koutris M, Lobbezoo F. Long-term variability of sleep bruxism and psychological stress in patients with jaw-muscle pain: report of two longitudinal clinical cases. J Oral Rehabil. 2018;45:104–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peterson S, Klick B, Wickwire EM, et al. Sleep disorders and their association with laboratory pain sensitivity in temporomandibular joint disorder. Sleep. 2009;32:779–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dubrovsky B, Raphael KG, Lavigne GJ, Janal MN, Sirois DA, Wigren PE, et al. Polysomnographic investigation of sleep and respiratory parameters in women with temporomandibular pain disorders. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014;10:195–201.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanders AE, Essick GK, Fillingim R, et al. Sleep apnea symptoms and risk of temporomandibular disorder: OPPERA cohort. J Dent Res. 2013;92:70s–7s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haviv Y, Khan J, Zini A, Almoznino G, Sharav Y, Benoliel R. Trigeminal neuralgia (part I): revisiting the clinical phenotype. Cephalalgia. 2016;36:730–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olesen J, Dodick D, Ducros A, et al. The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3). 2018.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maarbjerg S, Di Stefano G, Bendtsen L, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia - diagnosis and treatment. Cephalalgia. 2017;333102416687280.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    • Haviv Y, Zini A, Etzioni Y, et al. The impact of chronic orofacial pain on daily life: the vulnerable patient and disruptive pain. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;123:58–66. This study showed that around 50% of trigeminal neuralgia patients reported that pain awakens them from sleep. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu TH, Hu LY, Lu T, et al. Risk of psychiatric disorders following trigeminal neuralgia: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baad-Hansen L, Benoliel R. Neuropathic orofacial pain: facts and fiction. Cephalalgia. 2017;37:670–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baad-Hansen L, Leijon G, Svensson P, et al. Comparison of clinical findings and psychosocial factors in patients with atypical odontalgia and temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2007;22:7–14.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nixdorf D, Moana-Filho E. Persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP): working towards a better understanding. Rev Pain. 2011;5:18–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vazquez-Delgado E, Viaplana-Gutierrez M, Carlson C, Figueiredo R, Valmaseda-Castellon E. Sleep quality and psychosocial characteristics of patients with painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathies. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018;126:342–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Miura A, Tu TTH, Shinohara Y, Mikuzuki L, Kawasaki K, Sugawara S, et al. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with atypical odontalgia. J Psychosom Res. 2018;104:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee DH, Park JE, Yoon DM, Yoon KB, Kim K, Kim SH. Factors associated with increased risk for clinical insomnia in patients with postherpetic neuralgia: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Pain Med. 2016;17:1917–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roth T, van Seventer R, Murphy TK. The effect of pregabalin on pain-related sleep interference in diabetic peripheral neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia: a review of nine clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:2411–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yamada K, Kubota Y, Shimizu Y, et al. Sleep shortage is associated with postherpetic neuralgia development through hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity: a community-based prospective cohort study. Pain Pract. 2019.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jaaskelainen SK, Woda A. Burning mouth syndrome. Cephalalgia. 2017;37:627–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Adamo D, Schiavone V, Aria M, Leuci S, Ruoppo E, Dell’Aversana G, et al. Sleep disturbance in patients with burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study. J Orofac Pain. 2013;27:304–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lopez-Jornet P, Lucero-Berdugo M, Castillo-Felipe C, Zamora Lavella C, Ferrandez-Pujante A, Pons-Fuster A. Assessment of self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological status in patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29:1285–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Adamo D, Sardella A, Varoni E, Lajolo C, Biasotto M, Ottaviani G, et al. The association between burning mouth syndrome and sleep disturbance: a case-control multicentre study. Oral Dis. 2018;24:638–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee YH, Chon S. Burning mouth syndrome in postmenopausal women with self-reported sleep problems. Cranio. 2018:1–12.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee CF, Lin KY, Lin MC, Lin CL, Chang SN, Kao CH. Sleep disorders increase the risk of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective population-based cohort study. Sleep Med. 2014;15:1405–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Romero-Reyes M, Uyanik JM. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives. J Pain Res. 2014;7:99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Story WP, Durham J, Al-Baghdadi M, et al. Self-management in temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of behavioural components. J Oral Rehabil. 2016;43:759–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aggarwal VR, Fu Y, Main CJ, Wu J. The effectiveness of self-management interventions in adults with chronic orofacial pain: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eur J Pain. 2019;23:849–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    de Barros Pascoal AL, de Freitas R, da Silva LFG, et al. Effectiveness of counseling on chronic pain management in patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2019.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Manfredini D. Occlusal equilibration for the management of temporomandibular disorders. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2018;30:257–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Greene CS, Obrez A. Treating temporomandibular disorders with permanent mandibular repositioning: is it medically necessary? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;119:489–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kuzmanovic Pficer J, Dodic S, Lazic V, Trajkovic G, Milic N, Milicic B. Occlusal stabilization splint for patients with temporomandibular disorders: meta-analysis of short and long term effects. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0171296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Diener HC, Holle D, Solbach K, Gaul C. Medication-overuse headache: risk factors, pathophysiology and management. Nat Rev Neurol. 2016;12:575–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haviv Y, Rettman A, Aframian D, Sharav Y, Benoliel R. Myofascial pain: an open study on the pharmacotherapeutic response to stepped treatment with tricyclic antidepressants and gabapentin. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2015;29:144–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Alajbeg IZ, Boric Brakus R, Brakus I. Comparison of amitriptyline with stabilization splint and placebo in chronic TMD patients: a pilot study. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2018;52:114–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Haggman-Henrikson B, Alstergren P, Davidson T, et al. Pharmacological treatment of oro-facial pain - health technology assessment including a systematic review with network meta-analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2017;44:800–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R, Haanpää M, Hansson P, Jensen TS, et al. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17:1113–e1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bendtsen L, Zakrzewska JM, Abbott J, Braschinsky M, di Stefano G, Donnet A, et al. European academy of neurology guideline on trigeminal neuralgia. Eur J Neurol. 2019;26:831–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Li S, Lian YJ, Chen Y, Zhang HF, Ma YQ, He CH, et al. Therapeutic effect of botulinum toxin-a in 88 patients with trigeminal neuralgia with 14-month follow-up. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zhang H, Lian Y, Ma Y, Chen Y, He C, Xie N, et al. Two doses of botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: observation of therapeutic effect from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Demant DT, Lund K, Vollert J, Maier C, Segerdahl M, Finnerup NB, et al. The effect of oxcarbazepine in peripheral neuropathic pain depends on pain phenotype: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phenotype-stratified study. Pain. 2014;155:2263–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Finnerup NB, Attal N, Haroutounian S, McNicol E, Baron R, Dworkin RH, et al. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14:162–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Haviv Y, Zadik Y, Sharav Y, Benoliel R. Painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy: an open study on the pharmacotherapeutic response to stepped treatment. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2014;28:52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Herrero Babiloni A, Kapos FP, Nixdorf DR. Intraoral administration of botulinum toxin for trigeminal neuropathic pain. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;121:e148–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moreau N, Dieb W, Descroix V, Svensson P, Ernberg M, Boucher Y. Topical review: potential use of botulinum toxin in the management of painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017;31:7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gaul C, Resch S. Application of the capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch in neuropathic pain of the head and face: a case series. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:545–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Cui Y, Xu H, Chen FM, Liu JL, Jiang L, Zhou Y, et al. Efficacy evaluation of clonazepam for symptom remission in burning mouth syndrome: a meta-analysis. Oral Dis. 2016;22:503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Umezaki Y, Badran BW, DeVries WH, et al. The efficacy of daily prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for burning mouth syndrome (BMS): a randomized controlled single-blind study. Brain Stimul. 2016;9:234–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Herrero Babiloni A, Guay S, Nixdorf DR, de Beaumont L, Lavigne G. Non-invasive brain stimulation in chronic orofacial pain: a systematic review. J Pain Res. 2018;11:1445–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shim YJ, Lee MK, Kato T, Park HU, Heo K, Kim ST. Effects of botulinum toxin on jaw motor events during sleep in sleep bruxism patients: a polysomnographic evaluation. J Clin Sleep Med. 2014;10:291–8.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Carra MC, Macaluso GM, Rompre PH, et al. Clonidine has a paradoxical effect on cyclic arousal and sleep bruxism during NREM sleep. Sleep. 2010;33:1711–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Saletu A, Parapatics S, Anderer P, Matejka M, Saletu B. Controlled clinical, polysomnographic and psychometric studies on differences between sleep bruxers and controls and acute effects of clonazepam as compared with placebo. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;260:163–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Valiente Lopez M, van Selms MK, van der Zaag J, et al. Do sleep hygiene measures and progressive muscle relaxation influence sleep bruxism? Report of a randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:259–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sato M, Iizuka T, Watanabe A, Iwase N, Otsuka H, Terada N, et al. Electromyogram biofeedback training for daytime clenching and its effect on sleep bruxism. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:83–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang LF, Long H, Deng M, Xu H, Fang J, Fan Y, et al. Biofeedback treatment for sleep bruxism: a systematic review. Sleep Breath. 2014;18:235–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jokubauskas L, Baltrusaityte A. Efficacy of biofeedback therapy on sleep bruxism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 2018;45:485–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Conti PC, Stuginski-Barbosa J, Bonjardim LR, et al. Contingent electrical stimulation inhibits jaw muscle activity during sleep but not pain intensity or masticatory muscle pressure pain threshold in self-reported bruxers: a pilot study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014;117:45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakamura H, Takaba M, Abe Y, Yoshizawa S, Suganuma T, Yoshida Y, et al. Effects of a contingent vibratory stimulus delivered by an intra-oral device on sleep bruxism: a pilot study. Sleep Breath. 2019;23:363–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Matsumoto H, Tsukiyama Y, Kuwatsuru R, Koyano K. The effect of intermittent use of occlusal splint devices on sleep bruxism: a 4-week observation with a portable electromyographic recording device. J Oral Rehabil. 2015;42:251–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Carra MC, Huynh N, Fleury B, Lavigne G. Overview on sleep bruxism for sleep medicine clinicians. Sleep Med Clin. 2015;10:375–84 xvi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jokubauskas L, Baltrusaityte A, Pileicikiene G. Oral appliances for managing sleep bruxism in adults: a systematic review from 2007 to 2017. J Oral Rehabil. 2018;45:81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Qaseem A, Holty J-EC, Owens DK, et al. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:471–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Haviv Y, Benoliel R, Bachar G, Michaeli E. On the edge between medicine and dentistry: review of the dentist’s role in the diagnosis and treatment of snoring and sleep apnea. Quintessence Int. 2014;45:345–53.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    White DP, Shafazand S. Mandibular advancement device vs. CPAP in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: are they equally effective in short term health outcomes? J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:971–2.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schwartz M, Acosta L, Hung YL, Padilla M, Enciso R. Effects of CPAP and mandibular advancement device treatment in obstructive sleep apnea patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Breath. 2018;22:555–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fransson AMC, Kowalczyk A, Isacsson G. A prospective 10-year follow-up dental cast study of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/snoring who use a mandibular protruding device. Eur J Orthod. 2017;39:502–8.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Knappe SW, Bakke M, Svanholt P, Petersson A, Sonnesen L. Long-term side effects on the temporomandibular joints and oro-facial function in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with a mandibular advancement device. J Oral Rehabil. 2017;44:354–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Qaseem A, Kansagara D, Forciea MA, Cooke M, Denberg TD, for the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of chronic insomnia disorder in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:125–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Finan PH, Buenaver LF, Coryell VT, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid insomnia and chronic pain. Sleep Med Clin. 2014;9:261–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Koffel EA, Koffel JB, Gehrman PR. A meta-analysis of group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;19:6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Asnis GM, Thomas M, Henderson MA. Pharmacotherapy treatment options for insomnia: a primer for clinicians. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;17.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Atkin T, Comai S, Gobbi G. Drugs for insomnia beyond benzodiazepines: pharmacology, clinical applications, and discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2018;70:197–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Maarrawi J, Abdel Hay J, Kobaiter-Maarrawi S, Tabet P, Peyron R, Garcia-Larrea L. Randomized double-blind controlled study of bedtime low-dose amitriptyline in chronic neck pain. Eur J Pain. 2018;22:1180–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando G. Exposto
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Taro Arima
    • 3
  • Peter Svensson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, HealthAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON)AarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Section of International Affairs, Faculty of Dental MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Dental MedicineKarolinska InstitutetHuddingeSweden

Personalised recommendations