Medical Science Educator

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 223–231 | Cite as

Veterinary Students and Faculty Partner in Developing a Virtual Three-Dimensional (3D) Interactive Touch Screen Canine Anatomy Table

  • William B. LittleEmail author
  • Elpida Artemiou
  • Carmen Fuentealba
  • Anne Conan
  • Cathryn Sparks
Original Research


As educational technology advances, it is imperative that universities responsibly and appropriately adapt new approaches to enhance teaching and learning. Over a 6-month period, veterinary students at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) spearheaded the improvement of a proprietary prototype virtual interactive three-dimensional (3D), touch screen, canine anatomy table (APEX). Eight veterinary students with a grade of 80% or higher in their anatomy courses were hired as research assistants to identify and characterize 306 virtual anatomical structures. Descriptive statistics were used to assess students’ (1) accuracy in reviewing assigned anatomical structures, and (2) perceptions surrounding the use of APEX as an educational anatomical tool. The overall accuracy rating was 3.73 on a 4-point scale, and students reported their experience as enjoyable (median 4 on a 5-point Likert scale) and beneficial to their knowledge of veterinary anatomy (median 4). In addition, 29 RUSVM faculty were surveyed on both the prototype APEX table as well as the student-improved version. Faculty agreement with utilization of APEX in RUSVM curriculum increased from Likert mean = 2.0 to a mean of 3.9 (p = < 0.001) between the two versions. Study results support the use of veterinary students to critically assess the development of anatomical educational tools for veterinary anatomy. Furthermore, students and faculty supported acceptance of technology in teaching and learning veterinary anatomy, and reported enjoyment and benefit of its use.


Veterinary anatomy education Computer assisted learning Gross anatomy Virtual anatomy Educational methods 



APEX table development was facilitated by Gear Learning development studio.

Funding Information

Funding for this project was provided by an intramural grant from Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Center-4, Research and Innovation in Veterinary and Medical Education.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All participants were asked to read and sign an informed consent form prior to the start of the study. Standards, guidelines, and approval for the use of student cohorts relative to this research were administered by the RUSVM institutional review board (IRB).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

This manuscript does not contain images, tables or figures which are under copyright. All authors have read and accept responsibility for this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© International Association of Medical Science Educators 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesRoss University School of Veterinary MedicineBasseterreSaint Kitts and Nevis
  2. 2.Long Island University School of Veterinary MedicineBrookvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy and PhysiologyKansas State University School of Veterinary MedicineManhattanUSA

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