Medical Science Educator

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 45–50 | Cite as

Using Instrument-Guided Team Reflection and Debriefing to Cultivate Teamwork Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes in Pre-Clerkship Learning Teams

  • Weichao Chen
  • Melanie A. McCollum
  • Elizabeth B. Bradley
  • Barnett R. Nathan
  • Donna T. ChenEmail author
  • Mary Kate Worden
Short Communication


Drawing on the science of teamwork and the science of learning, we designed an instrument-guided team reflection and debriefing activity to foster teamwork knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) in medical students. We then embedded this activity within and between a biweekly series of pre-clerkship Team-Based Learning sessions with the goal of encouraging medical students to cultivate a practical and metacognitive appreciation of eight foundational teamwork KSAs that are applicable to both healthcare teams and classroom learning teams. On evaluations, 144 learners from a class of 156 reported increased appreciation for and team improvement with these teamwork KSAs.


Teamwork training Pre-clerkship learning teams Team-based learning Teamwork knowledge, skill, and attitude competencies 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Michelle Yoon, PhD, and Samuel Green, PhD, with the early phases of this project. We also thank the members of the UVA Medical Education Instructional Support staff for assisting with the logistics of administering the TDT and distributing the reports. Donna Chen MD, MPH and Mary Kate Worden PhD share senior authorship on this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval and Informed Consent

For this retrospective study, we used de-identified curriculum evaluation data for which formal consent from individual students is not required. Students are informed of such use of evaluation data for medical education research generally and are given the option to opt-out. Our use of de-identified evaluation data for medical education research was approved by University of Virginia’s Group on Research in Medical Education and Institutional Review Board.


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Copyright information

© International Association of Medical Science Educators 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Office of Medical Education, School of MedicineUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Human Anatomy, Department of RadiologyMichigan State University Colleges of Osteopathic & Human MedicineEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, School of MedicineUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  4. 4.Center for Biomedical Ethics and HumanitiesUniversity of Virginia Health SystemCharlottesvilleUSA

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