Advertisement

Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 287–296 | Cite as

Influence of light quality on leaf physiology of sweet pepper plants grown under drought

  • Simone Klein
  • Antje Fiebig
  • Georg Noga
  • Mauricio Hunsche
Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

The application of artificial light to improve crop production in greenhouses is widely used in the horticultural sector. In this study, we evaluated the impact of light quality on sweet pepper plants’ physiology during a period of water deficit. Pepper plants were cultivated in a climate chamber and exposed to three different light regimes; (compact fluorescent lamps [CFL], continuous intensity from light emitting diodes [LED] [LEDcont] and bell-like shape illumination schedule from LEDs [LEDday]). The effect of temporary water shortage under these light treatments on plant height, chlorophyll and proline concentration, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), the electron transport rate (ETR), and the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), were studied. In general, plants exposed to CFL showed higher growth rates as compared to those exposed to LED under well-watered conditions. However, the lighting source did not induce significant effects on plant growth and chlorophyll concentration during water deficit, even though proline concentration was higher in plants exposed to CFL and to drought when compared to those exposed to LEDcont and LEDday. LED radiation led to a higher ETR and an early onset of NPQ under water deficit, suggesting an activation of the cyclic electron transport. As outcome, plants grown under LEDcont showed the highest photochemical performance. Overall, the results suggest that pepper plants grown under CFL radiation perform better, even under water deficit, possibly due to the more balanced light spectrum.

Keywords

Light emitting diodes Blue and red light PAM Biochemical indicator Chlorophyll Stress physiology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to Marius Rütt and Knut Wichterich for their support in conducting the practical experiments in the climate chamber, Ira Kurth for her support with lab analysis, and Anna M. Hoffmann for valuable advices concerning light adjustments and non-destructive fluorescence analysis. Acknowledgements are extended to Ushio Europe B.V. (The Netherlands) and the group of technical engineers from Ushio Lighting Inc. (Japan) for developing and making the LED panels available for this study. We also acknowledge the constructive criticism of the anonymous reviewers during the evaluation phase of the manuscript.

References

  1. Akoyunoglou G, Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou JH, Michel-Wolwertz MR, Sironval C (1966) Effect of intermittent and continuous light on chlorophyll formation in etiolated plants. Physiol Plant 1:1101–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almansa EM, Chica RM, Planza BM, Lao-Arenas MT (2017) Proline test to evaluate light stress in tomato seedlings under artificial light. Acta Hortic 1170:1019–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker NR, Rosenqvist E (2004) Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve crop production strategies: an examination of future possibilities. J Exp Bot 55:1607–1621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Balegh SE, Biddulph O (1970) The photosynthetic action spectrum of the bean plant. Plant Physiol 46:1–5CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolhar-Nordenkampf HR, Long S, Lechner E (1989) Die Bestimmung der Photosynthesekapazität über Chlorophyllfluoreszez als Maß für die Streßbelastung von Bäumen. Phyton 29:119–135Google Scholar
  6. Brown CS, Schuerger AC, Sager JC (1995) Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 120:808–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bürling K, Hunsche M, Noga G (2010) Quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation in PSII (Y(NO)) for early detection of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) infection in susceptible and resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Precision Agric 11:703–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buschmann C, Meier D, Kleudgen HK, Lichtenthaler HK (1978) Regulation of chloroplast developmemt by red and blue light. Photochem Photobil 27:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carvalho SD, Schwieterman ML, Abrahan CE, Colquhoun TA, Folta KM (2016) Light quality dependent changes in morphology, antioxidant capacity, and volatile production in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Fron Plant Sci 7:1328Google Scholar
  10. Chow WS, Melis A, Anderson JM (1990) Adjustments of photosystem stoichiometry in chloroplast improve the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:7502–7506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornic G, Ghashghaie J, Genty B, Briantais JM (1992) Leaf photosynthesis is resistant to a mild drought stress. Photosynthetica 26:295–308Google Scholar
  12. Darko E, Heydarizadeh P, Schoefs B, Sabzalian MR (2014) Photosynthesis under artifical light: the shift in primary and secondary metabolism. Philos Trans R Soc B 369:20130243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickson MH, Chua SE (1963) Effect of flashing light on plant growth rate. Nature (Lond) 198:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dietzel L, Bräutigam K, Pfannschmidt T (2008) Photosynthetic acclimation: state transitions and adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry—functional relationships between short-term and long-term light quality acclimation in plants. FEBS J 275:1080–1088CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dong C, Fu Y, Liu G, Liu H (2014) Growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity and biomass yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to LED light sources with different spectra combinations. J Agron Crop Sci 200:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grobbelaar JU, Nedbal L, Tichý V (1996) Influence of high frequency light/dark fluctuations on photosynthetic characteristics of microalgae photoacclimated to different light intensities and implications for mass algal cultivation. J Appl Phycol 8:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hasan M Md, Bashir T, Ghosh R, Lee SK, Hanhong Bae (2017) An overview of LEDs’ effects on the production of bioactive compounds and crop quality. Molecules 22(9):1420CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN, Wani AS, Pichtel J, Ahmad A (2012) Role of proline under changing environments. Plant Signal Behav 7(11):1456–1466CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoffmann AM, Noga G, Hunsche M (2015a) Acclimations to light quality on plant and leaf level affect the vulnerability of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to water deficit. J Plant Res 128:295–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoffmann AM, Noga G, Hunsche M (2015b) High blue light improves acclimation and photosynthetic recovery of pepper plants exposed to UV stress. Environ Exp Bot 109:254–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffmann-Reh AM (2017) Influence of light quality on physiological responses of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as monitored by nondestructive sensors. Diss, University Bonn 2017Google Scholar
  22. Hogewoning SW, Trouwborst G, Maljaars H, Poorter H, Van Ieperen W, Harbinson J (2010) Blue-light dose-response of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red an blue light. J Exp Bot 61:3107–3117CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Holden M (1976) Chlorophylls. In: Goodwin TW (ed) Chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  24. Inada K (1976) Action spectra for photosynthesis in higher plants. Plant Cell Physiol 17:355–365Google Scholar
  25. Johnson GN (2011) Physiology of PSI cyclic electron transport in higher plants. BBA 1807:384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kautz B, Noga G, Hunsche M (2014) Controlled long-term water deficiency and its impact on the fluorescence emission of tomato leaves during stress and re-watering. Eur. J. Hort. Sci. 79:60–69Google Scholar
  27. Kim HH, Golns GD, Wheeler RM, Sager JC (2004) Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-ligt-emitting diodes. HortScience 39:1617–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kishor KPB, Sreenivasulu N (2014) Is proline accumulation per se correlated with stress tolerance or is proline homoeostasis a more critical issue? Plant Cell Environ 37:300–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lichtentahler HK (1984) Differences in morphology and chemical composition of leaves grown at different light intensities and qualities. In: Baker NR, Davies WJ, Ong KC (eds) Control of leaf growth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 201–222Google Scholar
  30. Lichtenthaler HK (1996) Vegetation stress: an introduction to the stress concept in plants. J Plant Physiol 148:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin KH, Huang MY, Huang WD, Hsu MH, Yang ZW (2013) The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). Sci Hort 150:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Massa GD, Kim HH, Wheeler RM, Mitchell CA (2008) Plant production in response to LED lighting. HortScience 43:1951–1956Google Scholar
  33. Menard C, Dorais M, Hovi T, Gosselin A (2006) Developmental and physiological responses of tomato and cucumber to additional blue light. Acta Hort 711:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ralph PJ, Gademann R (2005) Rapid light curves: a powerful tool to assess photosynthetic activity. Aquat Bot 82:222–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rodyoung A, Masuda Y, Tomiyama H, Saito T, Okawa K, Ohara H, Kondo S (2016) Effects of light emitting diode irradiation at night on abscisic acid metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis in grapes in different growing seasons. Plant Growth Regul 79:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schuerger AC, Brown CS, Stryjewski EC (1997) Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light. Ann Bot 79:273–282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Strobl A, Türk R (1990) Untersuchungen zum Chlorophyllgehalt einiger subalpiner Flechtenarten. Phyton Ann Rei Bot A 30:247–264Google Scholar
  38. Terashima I, Fujita T, Inoue T, Chow WS, Oguchi R (2009) Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: Revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green. Plant Cell Physiol 50:684–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yamori W, Makino A, Shikanai T (2016) A physiological role of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I in sustaining photosynthesis under fluctuating light in rice. Sci Rep 6:20147CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Yeh N, Chung J-P (2009) High-brightness LEDs—energy efficient lighting sources and their potential in indoor plant cultivation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:2175–2180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang G, Shen S, Takagaki M, Kozai T, Yamori W (2015) Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves. Front Plant Sci 6:1008–1016Google Scholar
  42. Zheng L, Van Labeke MC (2017) Chrysanthemum morphology, photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant capacity are differentially modified by light quality. J Plant Physiol 213:66–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Brazilian Society of Plant Physiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation – Horticultural SciencesUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.COMPO EXPERT GmbHMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations