Alterations in the intestinal microbiota of patients with severe and active Graves’ orbitopathy: a cross-sectional study
The intestinal microbiota was linked to autoimmune diseases. Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease that is usually associated with Graves’ disease. However, information on the microbiome of GO patients is yet lacking.
To investigate whether GO patients differ from healthy controls in the fecal microbiota.
A cross-sectional study.
33 patients with severe and active GO and 32 healthy controls of Han nationality were enrolled between March 2017 and March 2018.
The Gut microbial communities of the fecal samples of GO patients and healthy controls were analyzed and compared by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Community diversity (Simpson and Shannon) was significantly reduced in fecal samples from patients with GO as compared to controls (p < 0.05). The similarity observed while assessing the community diversity (PCoA) proposed that the microbiota of patients with GO differ significantly from those of controls (p < 0.05). At the phyla levels, the proportion of Bacteroidetes increased significantly in patients with GO (p < 0.05), while at the genus and species levels, significant differences were observed in the bacterial profiles between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Single-centered study design and limited fecal samples.
The present study indicated distinctive features of the gut microbiota in GO patients. The study provided evidence for further exploration in the field of intestinal microbiota with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of GO patients by modifying the microbiota profile.
KeywordsGraves’ orbitopathy (GO) Gut microbiota 16S rRNA gene Thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb)
The authors thank all the participants and staff involved in the study.
This work was supported by the Beijing Municipal Hospital Research and Development Program (PX2016063), the Expert Promotion Program of Beijing Health Systems (2015-3-017) to Zhong Xin, and the Foundation of Beijing Tongren Hospital (2015-YJJ-ZZL-006) to Ting-Ting Shi.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University. All procedures were performed in the study in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
Informed written consents were obtained from all participants included in this study.
- 3.Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Boboridis K, Eckstein A, Kahaly GJ, Marcocci C, Perros P, Salvi M, Wiersinga WM, European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy (2016) The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy guidelines for the Management of Graves’ Orbitopathy. Eur Thyroid J 5:9–26CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 5.Perros P, Hegedus L, Bartalena L, Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, Salvi M, Lazarus JH, Eckstein A, Pitz S, Boboridis K, Anagnostis P, Ayvaz G, Boschi A, Brix TH, Curro N, Konuk O, Marino M, Mitchell AL, Stankovic B, Toruner FB, von Arx G, Zarkovic M, Wiersinga WM (2017) Graves’ orbitopathy as a rare disease in Europe: a European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) position statement. Orphanet J Rare Dis 12:72CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Zhang X, Zhang D, Jia H, Feng Q, Wang D, Liang D, Wu X, Li J, Tang L, Li Y, Lan Z, Chen B, Li Y, Zhong H, Xie H, Jie Z, Chen W, Tang S, Xu X, Wang X, Cai X, Liu S, Xia Y, Li J, Qiao X, Al-Aama JY, Chen H, Wang L, Wu QJ, Zhang F, Zheng W, Li Y, Zhang M, Luo G, Xue W, Xiao L, Li J, Chen W, Xu X, Yin Y, Yang H, Wang J, Kristiansen K, Liu L, Li T, Huang Q, Li Y, Wang J (2015) The oral and gut microbiomes are perturbed in rheumatoid arthritis and partly normalized after treatment. Nat Med 21:895–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Masetti G, Moshkelgosha S, Kohling HL, Covelli D, Banga JP, Berchner-Pfannschmidt U, Horstmann M, Diaz-Cano S, Goertz GE, Plummer S, Eckstein A, Ludgate M, Biscarini F, Marchesi JR, INDIGO consortium (2018) Gut microbiota in experimental murine model of Graves’ orbitopathy established in different environments may modulate clinical presentation of disease. Microbiome 6:97CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Benjamin JL, Hedin CR, Koutsoumpas A, Ng SC, McCarthy NE, Prescott NJ, Pessoa-Lopes P, Mathew CG, Sanderson J, Hart AL, Kamm MA, Knight SC, Forbes A, Stagg AJ, Lindsay JO, Whelan K (2012) Smokers with active Crohn’s disease have a clinically relevant dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Inflamm Bowel Dis 18:1092–1100CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Biedermann L, Brulisauer K, Zeitz J, Frei P, Scharl M, Vavricka SR, Fried M, Loessner MJ, Rogler G, Schuppler M (2014) Smoking cessation alters intestinal microbiota: insights from quantitative investigations on human fecal samples using FISH. Inflamm Bowel Dis 20:1496–1501CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M, Ramazzotti M, Poullet JB, Massart S, Collini S, Pieraccini G, Lionetti P (2010) Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14691–14696CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar