The rebel thyroid of a revolutionary First Lady
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Nadezda Krupskaya, the revolutionary Russian and Lenin’s wife, was affected by Graves’ disease and many photos and portraits, including the painting of 1933 by Ivan Vladimirovich Kosmin, highlight evident goiter and exoftalmos. To treat Graves’ disease, Krupskaya underwent to surgery performed by Theodor Kocher, considered the father of the modern thyroid surgery.
KeywordsGraves’ disease Graves’s orbithopathy Theodor Kocher Lenin
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.
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