The rebel thyroid of a revolutionary First Lady

  • M. RussoEmail author
  • G. Borzì


Nadezda Krupskaya, the revolutionary Russian and Lenin’s wife, was affected by Graves’ disease and many photos and portraits, including the painting of 1933 by Ivan Vladimirovich Kosmin, highlight evident goiter and exoftalmos. To treat Graves’ disease, Krupskaya underwent to surgery performed by Theodor Kocher, considered the father of the modern thyroid surgery.


Graves’ disease Graves’s orbithopathy Theodor Kocher Lenin 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.

Informed consent

No informed consent.


  1. 1.
    Sebestyen V (2017) Lenin the dictator, an intimate portrait. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mintziori G, Kita M, Duntas L, Goulis DG (2016) Consequences of hyperthyroidism in male and female fertility: pathophysiology and current management. J Endocrinol Invest 39:849–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marinò M, Latrofa F, Menconi F, Chiovato L, Vitti P (2014) An update on the medical treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest 37:1041–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Masiello E, Veronesi G, Gallo D, Premoli P, Bianconi E, Rosetti S, Cusini C, Sabatino J, Ippolito S, Piantanida E, Tanda ML, Chiovato L, Wiersinga WM, Bartalena L (2018) Antithyroid drug treatment for Graves’ disease: baseline predictive models of relapse after treatment for a patient-tailored management. J Endocrinol Invest 41:1425–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hannan SA (2006) The magnificent seven: a history of modern thyroid surgery. Int J Surg 4:187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EndocrinologyGaribaldi-Nesima HospitalCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

Personalised recommendations