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The rebel thyroid of a revolutionary First Lady

  • M. RussoEmail author
  • G. Borzì
Endo&Art
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Nadezda Krupskaya, the revolutionary Russian and Lenin’s wife, was affected by Graves’ disease and many photos and portraits, including the painting of 1933 by Ivan Vladimirovich Kosmin, highlight evident goiter and exoftalmos. To treat Graves’ disease, Krupskaya underwent to surgery performed by Theodor Kocher, considered the father of the modern thyroid surgery.

Keywords

Graves’ disease Graves’s orbithopathy Theodor Kocher Lenin 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.

Informed consent

No informed consent.

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EndocrinologyGaribaldi-Nesima HospitalCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

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