High rate of detection of ultrasound signs of prostatitis in patients with HPV-DNA persistence on semen: role of ultrasound in HPV-related male accessory gland infection
- 61 Downloads
Papillomavirus (HPV) often occurs in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been suggested as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with HPV-related MAGI. No data on the spontaneous clearance of HPV-DNA have been reported so far in HPV-related MAGI.
The primary aim of the study was to assess the percentage of early HPV-DNA spontaneous clearance in patients with prostatitis. The secondary aim was to evaluate the frequency of spontaneous clearance of HPV-DNA among patients with prostatitis associated with the presence or absence of US abnormalities.
Patients with inflammatory MAGI and at least one suspicious criterion for HPV infection underwent semen HPV-DNA detection and prostate US. The presence of HPV-DNA was further investigated after a 6-month-long follow-up.
Eighty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were recruited in the study. 69% of patients (55/80) showed HPV-DNA persistence in the semen. Among them, 82% (45/55) was positive for US signs of prostatitis, while they occurred only in 12% (3/25) of those patients with no sign of HPV-DNA persistence (p < 0.001). All patients with persistent high-risk HPV genotype (n = 30) showed at least two US signs of prostatitis. In 73% of patients (22/30), E6 and E7 mRNAs were detected.
US signs of prostatitis more frequently occurred in patients with evidence of HPV-DNA persistence on semen, especially in those with high-risk genotypes. This highlights the importance of US in the framework of HPV-related MAGI.
KeywordsMale Accessory gland infection MAGI HPV HPV persistence Prostatitis HPV-related MAGI
Male accessory gland infection
Polymerase chain reaction
SLV, RC and AEC designed the study. RC and LM carried out the bibliographic research, the statistical analysis and the text correction. FG carried out the seminological evaluations. GS carried out virological evaluations. VF, GR and SC clinically evaluated the patients together with SLV and AEC. GM has critically evaluated the manuscript.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests in this study.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 13.Rowe P, Comhaire F, Hargreave TB, Mellows HJ (eds) (1993) World Health Organization Manual for the Standardised Investigation and Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple. Cambridge University Press, WHO, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 14.World Health Organization (2010) WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen, 5th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 22.Cai T, Wagenlehner FM, Mondaini N, D’Elia C, Meacci F, Migno S, Malossini G, Mazzoli S, Bartoletti R (2014) Effect of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection on sperm quality in young heterosexual men with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms. BJU Int 113:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar