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Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 1–19 | Cite as

Metformin as a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities: a comprehensive review on drug repositioning

  • S. E. Meshkani
  • D. Mahdian
  • K. Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi
  • M. Abroudi
  • G. Dadashizadeh
  • J.-D. Lalau
  • M. E. De Broe
  • H. HosseinzadehEmail author
Review

Abstract

Background

Metformin is the first prescribed drug for hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mainly by activating AMPK pathway, this drug exerts various functions that among them protective effects are of the interest.

Purpose

Herein, we aimed to gather data about the protective impacts of metformin against various natural or chemical toxicities.

Results

An extensive search among PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted by keywords related to protection, toxicity, natural and chemical toxins and, metformin. Our literature review showed metformin alongside its anti-hyperglycemic effect has a wide range of anti-toxic effects against anti-tumour and routine drugs, natural and chemical toxins, herbicides and, heavy metals.

Conclusion

It is evident that metformin is a potent drug against the toxicity of a broad spectrum of natural, chemical toxic agents which is proved by a vast number of studies. Metformin mainly through AMPK axis can protect different organs against toxicities. Moreover, metformin preserves DNA integrity and can be an option for adjuvant therapy to ameliorate side effect of other therapeutics.

Keywords

Metformin protection Toxin Natural toxin Chemical toxin 

Abbreviations

DXR

Doxorubicin

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

GSHPx

Glutathione peroxidase

CAT

Catalase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

ALT

Alanine transaminase

CK-MB

Creatinine phosphokinase

GSH

Glutathione

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

CNP

Serum C-type natriuretic peptide

TAC

Total antioxidant capacity

LH

Luteinizing hormone

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

NOS

Nitrite oxide synthase

PCE

Polychromatic erythrocytes

NCE

Normochromatic erythrocytes

BALF

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

AGEs

Advanced glycation endproducts

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have any potential conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. E. Meshkani
    • 1
  • D. Mahdian
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi
    • 1
    • 3
  • M. Abroudi
    • 1
  • G. Dadashizadeh
    • 1
  • J.-D. Lalau
    • 6
  • M. E. De Broe
    • 7
  • H. Hosseinzadeh
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Cellular and Molecular Research CenterSabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineSabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, School of MedicineSabzevar University of Medical SciencesSabzevarIran
  4. 4.Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology InstituteMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  6. 6.Department of EndocrinologyUniversité de Picardie Jules VerneAmiensFrance
  7. 7.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversiteit AntwerpenAntwerpBelgium

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