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The epigenetic landscape in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes

  • S. Costantino
  • S. Ambrosini
  • F. Paneni
Short Review

Abstract

A growing body of evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications—changes to the genome that do not involve changes in DNA sequence—may significantly derail transcriptional programs implicated in angiogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation, thus fostering cardiovascular damage in patients with diabetes. Notably, adverse epigenetic signals acquired over the life course can be transmitted to the offspring, and may contribute to early cardiovascular phenotypes in the young generations. Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance—key hallmarks of diabetes—induce an array of epigenetic modifications (i.e., DNA methylation, histone marks, and non-coding RNAs) which are responsible for a long-lasting impairment of vascular and cardiac function, even after intensive glycemic control. Hence, unveiling the “epigenetic landscape” in patients with diabetes may provide a post-genomic snapshot of global cardiovascular risk, and may furnish the tools to design personalized, epigenetic-based therapies to alleviate the burden of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The present review aims to acquaint the scientific community with the rapidly advancing field of epigenetics and its implications in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes.

Keywords

Diabetes Epigenetics Chromatin Cardiovascular disease Metabolic memory 

Notes

Acknowledgements

F.P. is the recipient of a Sheikh Khalifa’s Foundation Assistant Professorship at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Zürich. The present work is supported by the Zürich Heart House, the Swiss Heart Foundation, Swiss Life Foundation, the EMDO Stiftung; Kurt und Senta-Hermann Stiftung, and the Schweizerische Diabetes-Stiftung to F.P; the Holcim Foundation and the Swiss Heart Foundation (to S.C).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The manuscript complies to the ethical rules applicable for this journal.

Informed consent

None.

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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Epigenetics, Center for Molecular CardiologyUniversity of ZürichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.University Heart Center, CardiologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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