DNA methylation alterations as therapeutic prospects in thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. Although the 10-year survival rate of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is about 90% after conventional treatments, a small proportion of patients still suffer from tumor recurrence or drug resistance.
This review article summarizes recent researches and clinical trials related to target drugs that reduce mortality in thyroid cancer.
This is a review of the recent literature and clinical trials on the three main aspects including methylation genes in thyroid cancers, the relationship between BRAF mutation and gene methylation, target and dehypermethylation drugs in clinical trials.
We propose new approaches to treating malignant thyroid cancer, based on advances in understanding the relationship between genetic and epigenetic changes in thyroid cancer. Although the effect of traditional treatment for thyroid cancer is relatively good, a small proportion of patients still suffer from tumor recurrence or drug resistance. Molecular targeted drugs and dehypermethylation drugs have more promising outcomes in aggressive thyroid cancer compared with conventional treatments.
Based on what was discussed in this review, we suggest that integration of epigenetic and targeted therapies into conventional treatments will reduce the occurrence of refractory radioiodine differentiated thyroid cancer and improve the outcomes in aggressive thyroid cancer patients.
KeywordsDNA methylation BRAF mutation Thyroid cancer Personalized therapy
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This manuscript is a review of the literature and does not contain original research either on animal or on human subjects.
For this type of study, informed consent is not required.
- 4.Hundahl SA, Cady B, Cunningham MP, Mazzaferri E, McKee RF, Rosai J, Shah JP, Fremgen AM, Stewart AK, Hölzer S (2000) Initial results from a prospective cohort study of 5583 cases of thyroid carcinoma treated in the United States during 1996. US and German Thyroid Cancer Study Group. An American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer Patient Care Evaluation study. Cancer 89(1):202–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 59.Brose MS, Cabanillas ME, Cohen EE et al (2016) Vemurafenib in patients with BRAFV600E-positive metastatic or unresectable papillary thyroid cancer refractory to radioactive iodine: a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 17(9):1272–1282CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar