Teaching Children With Autism to Initiate Social Interactions Using Textual Prompts Delivered via Apple Watches®
- 37 Downloads
Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often engage in low levels of peer social interactions; therefore, we often need to explicitly teach these skills. In the current study, we implemented a combined tactile and textual prompt, delivered via a text message sent to an Apple Watch®, to prompt social initiations from children with ASD to peers during free play. Results showed that the text message prompts increased the frequency of independent social initiations for both participants. Furthermore, 1 participant continued to emit high levels of independent social initiations during a 1-month follow-up with no prompts.
KeywordsAutism Prompting Social interactions technology Text message
This project was completed in partial fulfillment of the master’s degree from California State University, Stanislaus, by the first author. This study was supported in part by a Student Engagement in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity Mini-grant from California State University, Stanislaus. We thank Haide Rocha and Cecilia Schaffner for their assistance in collecting data.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional committee (Psychology Institutional Review Board, CSU Stanislaus, P-F17-72) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Ledbetter-Cho, K., Lang, R., Davenport, K., Moore, M., Lee, A., Howell, A., . . . O’Reilly, M. (2015). Effects of script fading on the peer-to-peer communication of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48(4), 785–799. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Memari, A. H., Panahi, N., Ranjbar, E., Moshayedi, P., Shafiel, M., Kordi, R., & Ziaee, V. (2015). Children with autism spectrum disorder and patterns of participation in daily physical and play activities. Neurological Research International. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/531906.
- Peić, D., & Hernández, V. (2016). Countee - Data collection system for behavioral data (1.0.4) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com
- Rubin, K., Coplan, R., & Bowker, J. (2009). Social withdrawal in childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 141–171. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tzanakaki, P., Grindle, C., Dungait, S., Hulson-Jones, A., Saville, M., Hughes, J. C., & Hastings, R. P. (2014). Use of a tactile prompt to increase social initiations in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(6), 726–736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.03.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar