Advertisement

Culture Always Matters: Some Thoughts on Rosenberg and Schwartz

  • Matthew T. BrodheadEmail author
Special Section: Diversity and Inclusion

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to and highlight some particularly enlightening arguments described by Rosenberg and Schwartz (2019). First, I emphasize the importance of the role of culture in ethical analysis and describe how the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts (2014; hereafter referred to as the BACB Code) unintentionally underplays the importance of culture. Second, I express support for the model of ethical analysis proposed by Rosenberg and Schwartz and explain how their model provides an excellent and much-needed framework for the observation (and subsequent study) of ethical decision-making in behavior-analytic practice. Finally, I go all in and join Rosenberg and Schwartz in their call for scholars to critically analyze and discuss the BACB Code and to challenge the status quo (or call into question those who do). Such a discussion is healthy for our science and understanding of ethics and behavior analysis.

Keywords

applied behavior analysis culture ethics decision-making models dissent 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1968.1-91.
  2. Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2016). Ethics for behavior analysts (3rd ed.). New York, NY: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaulieu, L., Addington, J., & Almeida, D. (2018). Behavior analysts’ training and practices regarding cultural diversity: The case for culturally competent care. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00313-6.
  4. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2012). Fourth Edition Task List. Retrieved from https://www.bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/160101-BCBA-BCaBA-task-list-fourth-edition-english.pdf.
  5. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2014). Professional and ethical compliance code for behavior analysts. Retrieved from https://bacb.com/ethics-code/.
  6. Bolling, M. T. (2002). Research and representation: A conundrum for behavior analysts. Behavior and Social Issues, 12, 19–28.  https://doi.org/10.5210/bsi.v12i1.76.
  7. Brodhead, M. T. (2015). Maintaining professional relationships in an interdisciplinary setting: Strategies for navigating nonbehavioral treatment recommendations for individuals with autism. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8, 70–78.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-015-0042-7.
  8. Brodhead, M. T., Cox, D. J., & Quigley, S. P. (2018a). Practical ethics for effective treatment of autism spectrum disorder. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brodhead, M. T., Durán, L., & Bloom, S. E. (2014). Cultural and linguistic diversity in recent verbal behavior research on individuals with disabilities: A review and implications for research and practice. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 30, 75–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40616-014-0009-8.
  10. Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S. P., & Cox, D. J. (2018b). How to identify ethical organizations prior to employment. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11, 165–173.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0235-y.
  11. Friman, P. C. (2010). Come on in, the water is fine: Achieving mainstream relevance through integration with primary medical care. The Behavior Analyst, 33, 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fong, E. H., Catagnus, R. M., Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S., & Field, S. (2016). Developing cultural awareness skills of behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0111-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fong, E. H., & Tanaka, S. (2013). Multicultural alliance of behavior analysis standards for cultural competence in behavior analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8, 17–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geiger, K. B., Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2010). Function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior: A treatment selection model for practicing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3, 22–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391755.
  15. Glenn, S. S. (1993). Windows on the 21st century. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Graber, A., & Graber, J. E. (2018). The unique challenge of articulating the behavior analysts’ ethical obligations and the case of punishment. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00310-9.
  17. Graber, A., & O’Brien, M. (2018). The promise of accountable care organizations: “The Code,” reimbursement, and an ethical no-win situation for behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0209-0.
  18. Kipfmiller, K. J., Brodhead, M. T., Wolfe, K., Lalonde, K., Sipila, E. S., Bak, M. Y. S., & Fisher, M. H. (2019). Training front-line employees to conduct visual analysis using a clinical decision-making model. Journal of Behavioral Education. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-09318-1.
  19. Li, A., Wallace, L., Ehrhardt, K. E., & Poling, A. (2017). Reporting participant characteristics in intervention articles published in five behavior-analytic journals, 2013–2015. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17, 84–91.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000071.
  20. Malott, M. E. (1992). Designing a humanitarian culture: An analysis of the Cuban experiment. Behavior and Social Issues, 2, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mattaini, M. (2010). Editorial: Cultural analysis and social change in Medellin. Behavior and Social Issues, 19, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Newhouse-Oisten, M. K., Peck, K. M., Conway, A. A., & Frieder, J. E. (2017). Ethical considerations for interdisciplinary collaboration with prescribing professionals. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10, 145–153.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-017-0184-x.
  23. Newman, B., Reinecke, D. R., & Kurtz, A. L. (1996). Why be moral: Humanist and behavioral perspectives. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rosenberg, N., & Schwartz, I. (2019). Guidance or compliance: What makes an ethical behavior analyst? Behavior Analysis in Practice.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-00287-5.
  25. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. Skinner, B. F. (1976). Walden two. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
  27. Skinner, B. F. (1981). Selection by consequences. Science, 213, 501–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14, 197–208.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300712442242.
  29. Witts, B. N., Brodhead, M. T., Adlington, L. A., & Barron, D. (2018). Behavior analysts accept gifts during practice: So now what? Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000117.
  30. World Health Organization. (2000). General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. Retrieved on January 17, 2019, from whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/WHO_EDM_TRM_2000.1.pdf.

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations