The Effect of a Sounding-Out Step for Cover-Copy-Compare on Spelling Word Acquisition

  • Megan K. Drivas
  • Daniel D. DrevonEmail author
Research Article


Cover-copy-compare (CCC) is a self-managed intervention that relies on modeling, opportunities to respond, and corrective feedback to improve spelling. Refinements to CCC have been investigated to maximize its effectiveness and efficiency. One such refinement is the addition of a sounding-out step (CCC+SO). Because research investigating CCC+SO has yielded inconsistent results, the current study sought to further examine CCC+SO while addressing some of the methodological limitations of previous studies. An alternating-treatments design was used to compare CCC and CCC+SO on the cumulative number of spelling words acquired with three 2nd and 3rd graders. Participants practiced spelling words using CCC and CCC+SO and demonstrated considerable growth in spelling performance from baseline to intervention; however, there was little difference in cumulative spelling words acquired across conditions. Implications for practitioners and researchers, limitations, and future directions are discussed.


Acquisition Alternating-treatments design Cover-copy-compare Maintenance Spelling 



The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Bailey Chapman with intervention implementation and data collection. The present study was completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts at Central Michigan University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from a parent of each individual participant included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCentral Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

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