Psychosocial Factors of Diet and Physical Activity among Rural, Hispanic Children: Findings from a Multilevel Health Intervention Study
- 34 Downloads
To examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, family role modeling, and perceptions of the environment, on diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in Hispanic children living in rural Washington State.
Gender, heights, and weights were obtained from Hispanic 8–12 year olds (n = 553) from two rural communities in Lower Yakima, Washington. A subsample of 179 children provided psychosocial measures, diet, and screen time via questionnaire and physical activity via accelerometer. Body mass index percentiles were used to calculate the prevalence of obesity. The association of demographic and psychosocial measures on the mean difference (95% confidence interval (CI)) of fruit, vegetable, and sugar consumption and minutes spent active was estimated using linear regression models.
Prevalence of obesity was 35%. Children with obesity consumed one-fifth (− 0.3, − 0.02) fewer cups of fruits, 2.2 (0.1, 4.2) more teaspoons of total added sugars, and spent 16.1 (− 22.0, − 10.2) fewer minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day compared with children with healthy weights. Males consumed more added sugars and reported more screen time than females, but spent more daily minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Higher fruit and vegetable self-efficacy scores were associated with more consumption of fruits and vegetables, more engagement in light physical activity, and less time spent sedentary per day.
Male gender and some psychosocial measures were associated with obesogenic behaviors. Insight about factors associated with obesity-related behaviors in rural, Hispanic children may help the development of successful and effective behavioral health interventions for this understudied population.
KeywordsRural Hispanic children Obesogenic behaviors Psychosocial factors Obesity
List of Abbreviations
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
body mass index
Strategizing Together Relevant Intervention for Diet and Exercise
Centers for Disease Control
Dietary Screener Questionnaire
The authors wish to thank Beti Thompson and Norma (Mariscal) Alcala for their support on this project.
Funding was provided by the National Institutes of Health (U01 MD010540). The funding body had no role in the study’s design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the writing of this manuscript.
Availability of Data
The datasets analyzed in the current study are part of an ongoing longitudinal multi-intervention trial and are not publicly available, but are accessible from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
All authors contributed meaningfully to the development of this manuscript. LK and ERS designed and developed the study. LK and SB secured funding. LK, SB, and OC implemented the study and collected the data. ERS, LK, JM, and MK analyzed and interpreted the data and completed the literature search. All authors participated in the writing of the manuscript, accept responsibility for its content, and approved this submitted version.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Consent to Participate
Endorsement to conduct the study was obtained from the Lower Yakima Community Advisory Board and the school superintendents. All parents of children participating in the STRIDE study provided written informed consent and all children in the STRIDE study provided written assent to participate.
- 4.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The health and well-being of children in rural areas: a portrait of the nation, 2011-2012. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. p. 2015.Google Scholar
- 5.U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 8th Edition. December 2015. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/. Accessed April 2018.
- 13.Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. A SAS Program for the 2000 CDC growth charts (ages 0 to < 20 years). Last updated December 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/growthcharts/resources/sas.htm. Accessed April 2018.
- 19.National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences. Dietary screener questionnaire in the NHANES 2009–10: background. Last Updated February 2018. https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/nhanes/dietscreen/. Accessed April 2018.
- 24.National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences. Usual dietary intakes: food Intakes, US Population, 2007–10. Last updated April 2018. https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/pop/2007-10. Accessed June 2018.
- 33.Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology, third edition. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.Google Scholar