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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 1044–1051 | Cite as

Vicarious Racism Stress and Disease Activity: the Black Women’s Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study

  • Connor D. MartzEmail author
  • Amani M. Allen
  • Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell
  • Erica C. Spears
  • S. Sam Lim
  • Cristina Drenkard
  • Kara Chung
  • Evelyn A. Hunter
  • David H. Chae
Article

Abstract

Background

Indirect or vicarious exposure to racism (e.g., hearing about or observing acts of racism or discrimination) is a salient source of stress for African Americans. Emerging research suggests that these “secondhand” experiences of racism may contribute to racial health inequities through stress-mediated pathways. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately impacts African American women and is characterized by racial disparities in severity. Health outcomes in this population may be susceptible to vicarious racism given that SLE is shown to be sensitive to psychosocial stress.

Methods

Data are from 431 African American women with SLE living in Atlanta, Georgia in the Black Women’s Experiences Living with Lupus (BeWELL) Study (2015–2017). Vicarious racism stress was measured with four items assessing distress from (1) hearing about racism in the news; (2) experiences of racism among friends or family; (3) witnessing racism in public; and (4) racism depicted in movies and television shows. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations with disease activity measured using the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire.

Results

Adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related covariates, vicarious racism stress was associated with greater disease activity (b = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.04–3.27). This association persisted even after adjustment for personal experiences of racial discrimination (b = 1.80; 95% CI = 0.67–2.92).

Conclusions

Vicarious racism may result in heightened disease activity and contribute to racial disparities in SLE. Our findings suggest that acts of racism committed against members of one’s racial group may have distinct health consequences beyond the immediate victim or target.

Keywords

Vicarious racism Systemic lupus erythematosus African American women Racial discrimination 

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01AR065493. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the study.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Connor D. Martz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amani M. Allen
    • 2
  • Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell
    • 1
  • Erica C. Spears
    • 3
  • S. Sam Lim
    • 4
    • 5
  • Cristina Drenkard
    • 4
    • 5
  • Kara Chung
    • 1
  • Evelyn A. Hunter
    • 6
  • David H. Chae
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesAuburn University, College of Human SciencesAuburnUSA
  2. 2.Divisions of Community Health Sciences and EpidemiologyUniversity of California – Berkeley, School of Public HealthBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, School of Public HealthFort WorthUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, Division of RheumatologyEmory University, School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Department of EpidemiologyEmory University, Rollins School of Public HealthAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Special Education, Rehabilitation and CounselingAuburn University, College of EducationAuburnUSA

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