Racial Disparity in Incidence and Survival for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): an Analysis of SEER Database
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Gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs) represent the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. There has been limited data on GIST incidence and survival disparities between ethnic groups.
Assess disparities in incidence and survival among race in the USA in the era of available GIST histologic codes and treatment.
We queried Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for GIST from 2002 to 2015, with diagnostic code 8936.
Of the 7204 patients identified, 4928 (68.4%) were White, 1308 (18.2%) African American (AA), and 968 (13.4%) were classified as “Other” (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander). The overall incidence rate (IR) was 0.75 per 100,000. IR was highest among AA at 1.37/100,000, but 0.65/100,000 for Whites, 1.10/100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 0.28/100,000 for American Indians/Alaskan Natives. The GIST incidence was twice as high for AA as for Whites (rate ratio [RR]: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.98–2.26; p < 0.001). There was higher proportion of Whites than AA, who underwent surgical extirpation. Median overall survival (OS) and GIST specific survival (GSS) were not reached for all race, which indicates more than half of the patients were still alive at end of follow-up period. In multivariate Cox model, belonging to “Other” had better OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]; 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55–0.95, P = 0.021) for GIST, but no difference in prognosis and OS for AA and White [(aHR for whites; 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69–1.02, P = 0.071), AA = reference]. There was no difference in GSS among races.
Significant racial disparity in incidence and overall survival for GIST exists, and efforts should be made to bridge this gap and improve outcomes for all races. The overall incidence rate for GIST was noted to be 7.5 per 1 million, and IR of GIST was twice as high for African Americans as compared to Whites. The “Other” racial group (American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders) had superior OS as compared to African Americans and Whites.
KeywordsSurveillance epidemiology and end results Gastrointestinal stromal tumors Race disparity Median survival Incidence rate Incidence of GIST
We are thankful to Paschal Apanga (University of Nevada, Reno) for his help and suggestions.
MBU, MR, BDB, TH, and GN conceived the idea and prepared manuscript. MR, KGK, MBU drafted the initial manuscript. MBU performed the computations. WY helped with computation and statistical analysis. TD helped with manuscript writing. SA, NG, TH guided the preparation process and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved of the manuscript prior to publication.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
There was no IRB approval needed for this research, as it utilizes public, de-identified data.
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