Advertisement

What are Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis?

  • Tiago Alfredo da Silva FerreiraEmail author
  • Aline Souza Simões
  • Amanda Raña Ferreira
  • Bruno Oliveira Santana dos Santos
Original Research
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

The context of psychotherapy involves ethical, theoretical, and technical matters regarding limits and possibilities to clinical practice. Some of these matters concern values and their importance for clinical interventions. Given the central role that the concept of values seems to have in current behavioral therapeutic models, this article intends to analyze and discuss perspectives regarding this concept as presented by authors such as Skinner, Leigland, Plumb, Wilson, and Harris. It is argued that the definition of values should be described using low-level terms, so that it may generate basic and applied research without losing its relevance to the clinical setting. We propose that values are stable and comprehensive qualities of behaving, described by the subject in augmental rules that establish a positive reinforcing function for his/her own described behavior. Further utility of such a definition involves its precision and focus on aspects that are under direct influence of the client.

Keywords

Values Clinical practice Clinical behavior analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Abib, J. A. D. (2001a). Arqueologia do behaviorismo radical e o conceito de mente. In H. J. Guilhardi, M. B. B. P. Madi, P. P. Queiroz, & M. C. Scoz (Eds.), Sobre comportamento e cognição (Vol. 7, pp. 20–35). Santo André, Brazil: ESETec.Google Scholar
  2. Abib, J. A. D. (2001b). Teoria moral de Skinner e desenvolvimento humano. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 14(1), 107–117.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-79722001000100009.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2003). Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais DSM-IV-TR. Porto Alegre, Brasil: Artmed.Google Scholar
  4. Assaz, D. A., Vartanian, J. F., Aranha, A. S., Oshiro, C. K. B., & Meyer, S. B. (2016). Valores sob a perspectiva analítico-comportamental: da teoria à prática clínica. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Comportamental e Cognitiva, 3(3), 30–40.Google Scholar
  5. Biglan, A., & Hayes, S. C. (1996). Should the behavioral sciences become more pragmatic? The case for functional contextualism in research on human behavior. Applied & Preventive Psychology: Current Scientific Perspectives, 5, 47–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(96)80026-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonow, J. T., & Follette, W. C. (2009). Beyond values clarification: Addressing client values in clinical behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 32, 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dittrich, A., & Abib, J. (2004). O Sistema Ético Skinneriano e Conseqüências para a Prática dos Analistas do Comportamento. Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica, 17, 427–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferreira, D. C., & Tourinho, E. Z. (2011). Relações entre depressão e contingências culturais nas sociedades modernas: Interpretação analítico-comportamental. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Comportamental e Cognitiva, 13, 20–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foody, M., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Luciano, C. (2013). An empirical investigation of hierarchical versus distinction relations in a self-based ACT exercise. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 13, 373–388.Google Scholar
  10. Friman, P. C., Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1998). Why behavior analysts should study emotion: The example of anxiety. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 137–156.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1998.31-137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanna, E. S., & Ribeiro, M. R. (2005). Autocontrole: Um caso especial de comportamento de escolha. In J. Abreu-Rodrigues & M. R. Ribeiro (Eds.), Análise do comportamento: Pesquisa, teoria e aplicação (pp. 175–187). Porto Alegre, Brasil: Artmed.Google Scholar
  12. Harris, R. (2009). ACT made simple: An easy-to-read primer on acceptance and commitment therapy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  13. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy 1 and the New Behavior Therapies: Mindfulness, acceptance, and relationship. In S. C. Hayes, V. Follette, & M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 1–29). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hayes, S. C., & Smith, S. (2005). Get out of your mind and into your life: The new acceptance and commitment therapy. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (Eds.). (2001). Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hayes, S. C., Kohlenberg, B., & Hayes, L. J. (1991). The transfer of specific and general consequential functions through simple and conditional equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56(1), 119–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hughes, S., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2016). Relational Frame Theory: The basic account. In R. D. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (pp. 129–178). West Sussex, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Kanter, J., Busch, A., & Rusch, L. (2009). Behavioural Activation: Distinctive features. New York, NY: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1352465811000725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kanter, J., Holman, G., & Wilson, K. (2014). Where is the love? Contextual behavioral science and behavior analysis. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(2), 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kelly, T. A. (1990). The role of values in psychotherapy: A critical review of process and outcome effects. Clinical Psychological Review, 10, 171–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358(90)90056-g.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leigland, S. (2005). Variables of which values are a function. The Behavior Analyst, 28, 133–142.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03392109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Luciano, C. (2016). Evolución de ACT. Análisis y Modificación de Conducta, 42, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luoma, J. B., Hayes, S. C., & Walser, R. D. (2007). Learning ACT: An acceptance & commitment therapy skills-training manual for therapists. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1352465808004670.Google Scholar
  26. McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Hussey, I., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2015). The ties between a basic science of language and cognition and clinical applications. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2, 56–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2014.11.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Neef, N. A., Bicard, D. F., & Endo, S. (2001). Assessment of impulsivity and the development of self-control in students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 397–408.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2001.34-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Plumb, J. C., Stewart, I., Dahl, J., & Lundgren, T. (2009). In search of meaning: Values in modern clinical behavior analysis. Behavior Analyst, 32(1), 85–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03392177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Poling, A., Methot, L. L., & LeSage, M. G. (2013). Fundamentals of behavior analytic research. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1436-1.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers, C. R., & Skinner, B. F. (1956). Some issues concerning the control of human behavior: A symposium. Science, 124, 1057–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.124.3231.1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schlinger, H., & Blakely, E. (1987). Function-altering effects of contingency-specifying stimuli. The Behavior Analyst, 10(1), 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Skinner, B. F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  33. Skinner, B. F. (1987). What’s is wrong with daily life in the Western world? In B. F. Skinner (Ed.), Upon further reflection (pp. 15–31). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Törneke, N., Luciano, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Bond, F. (2016). RFT for clinical practice: Three core strategies in understanding and treating human suffering. In R. D. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (pp. 254–272). Chichester: Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118489857.Google Scholar
  35. Villatte, M., Villatte, J. L., & Hayes, S. C. (2016). Mastering the clinical conversation: Language as intervention. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Watrin, J. P., & Canaan, S. (2015). Valores do Terapeuta na Clínica Analítico-Comportamental. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 31(4), 519–527.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-37722015042370519527.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, K. G., & DuFrene, T. (2008). Mindfulness for two. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de PsicologiaUniversidade Federal da BahiaSalvadorBrazil

Personalised recommendations