Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 532–536 | Cite as

Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in the Medical Record: Implicit Bias or Patient Advocacy?

  • Matthew C. FadusEmail author
  • Oluwatobiloba T. Odunsi
  • Lindsay M. Squeglia
In Depth Article: Commentary
On morning rounds, before meeting newly admitted patients from overnight, an inpatient team listens to the medical students present the patients’ histories:

Medical student 1: “A 32-year-old male presented to the emergency room by police escort for erratic behavior. Collateral from law enforcement reported that the patient was hostile and aggressive toward others in the facility at which he lives, and the patient reported experiencing auditory hallucinations to harm others.”

Medical student 2: “A 25-year-old African American male presented to the emergency room for making homicidal threats toward others. He was brought in by emergency medical services, and overnight there was concern that he was experiencing auditory hallucinations and responding to internal stimuli.”

The clinical vignettes reported from the medical students identify two patients with similar presentations: hostility, aggression, and homicidality in the context of psychosis. However, subtle differences occur between...


Compliance with Ethical Standards


On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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