Toxoplasma: Immunity and Pathogenesis
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Purpose of Review
Toxoplasmosis is an apicomplexan parasite that can be found in all countries, which causes an infection of the central nervous system. This review outlines some of the recent immunological advances that have been made against this chronic infection that poses a major problem for the immunocompromised individuals.
Recent studies have demonstrated that in a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis, the infection leads to T cell dysfunctionality. The exhaustion that is observed in both CD4 and CD8 T cells is manifested by increased expression of co-inhibitory molecules like PD-1 and leads to reactivation of latent infection. Blockade of PD-1-PDL-1 interaction reverses the exhaustion and prevents reactivation of latent infection in the host.
Prevention of loss of CD4 T cell function can be important therapeutic strategy for controlling chronic toxoplasmosis and preventing reactivation of latent infection.
KeywordsToxoplasma CD8 T cells CD4 T cells IL-12 IL-21 Exhaustion
This work was supported by the NIH grant AI33325 awarded to IAK.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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