Exosomes as Mediators of Chemical-Induced Toxicity
Purpose of Review
This review provides information regarding how exosomes may contribute to environmental chemical-induced pathogenesis of chronic diseases. In connecting exosome biology to environmental toxicology and disease pathogenesis, we address vital questions regarding what constitutes exosomal cargo, how toxicants influence exosomal cargo, and how environmental stimuli influence exosomal physiological and pathological functions.
Recent studies in the field demonstrate that exosomal cargo changes depending on external stimuli, which has consequences for the microenvironment of recipient cells.
Based on recent findings, it is evident that exosomal cargo comprises various biological molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid molecules. Misfolded proteins and miRNA are examples of exosomal cargo molecules that can be altered by toxicants, ultimately changing the microenvironment of recipient cells in ways that are conducive to pathological processes. It will be crucial to map out the key signaling pathways that toxicants target to modulate exosomal cargo and their release.
KeywordsEnvironmental toxicants Exosomes Metals Pesticides Toxicity Misfolded proteins Neurotoxicity
We thank Gary Zenitsky for assistance in preparing this manuscript.
This review was financially supported by the National Institutes of Health R01 grants [ES026892, ES019267, and ES025991] to A.G.K. and NS088206 to A.K. The W. E. Lloyd Endowed Chair and Eminent Scholar in Veterinary Medicine and Armbrust Endowment to A.G.K. and the Salisbury Endowed Chair to A.K. are also acknowledged.
Compliance With Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dharmin Rokad, Huajun Jin, and Arthi Kanthasamy each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Vellareddy Anantharam reports a startup company established by the PI of PK Biosciences.
Anumantha G. Kanthasamy reports a startup company established by the PI of PK Biosciences.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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