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Exosomes as Mediators of Chemical-Induced Toxicity

  • Dharmin Rokad
  • Huajun Jin
  • Vellareddy Anantharam
  • Arthi Kanthasamy
  • Anumantha G. KanthasamyEmail author
Mechanisms of Toxicity (JR Richardson, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Mechanisms of Toxicity

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review provides information regarding how exosomes may contribute to environmental chemical-induced pathogenesis of chronic diseases. In connecting exosome biology to environmental toxicology and disease pathogenesis, we address vital questions regarding what constitutes exosomal cargo, how toxicants influence exosomal cargo, and how environmental stimuli influence exosomal physiological and pathological functions.

Recent Findings

Recent studies in the field demonstrate that exosomal cargo changes depending on external stimuli, which has consequences for the microenvironment of recipient cells.

Summary

Based on recent findings, it is evident that exosomal cargo comprises various biological molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipid molecules. Misfolded proteins and miRNA are examples of exosomal cargo molecules that can be altered by toxicants, ultimately changing the microenvironment of recipient cells in ways that are conducive to pathological processes. It will be crucial to map out the key signaling pathways that toxicants target to modulate exosomal cargo and their release.

Keywords

Environmental toxicants Exosomes Metals Pesticides Toxicity Misfolded proteins Neurotoxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Gary Zenitsky for assistance in preparing this manuscript.

Funding Information

This review was financially supported by the National Institutes of Health R01 grants [ES026892, ES019267, and ES025991] to A.G.K. and NS088206 to A.K. The W. E. Lloyd Endowed Chair and Eminent Scholar in Veterinary Medicine and Armbrust Endowment to A.G.K. and the Salisbury Endowed Chair to A.K. are also acknowledged.

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dharmin Rokad, Huajun Jin, and Arthi Kanthasamy each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Vellareddy Anantharam reports a startup company established by the PI of PK Biosciences.

Anumantha G. Kanthasamy reports a startup company established by the PI of PK Biosciences.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dharmin Rokad
    • 1
  • Huajun Jin
    • 1
  • Vellareddy Anantharam
    • 1
  • Arthi Kanthasamy
    • 1
  • Anumantha G. Kanthasamy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Parkinson Disorders Research Program, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Department of Biomedical SciencesIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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