3D numerical simulations of granular materials using DEM models considering rolling phenomena
This work presents a review of the formulation for computer simulation based on the discrete element method to analyze granular materials and a validation of the method using different types of tridimensional examples. The individual particulate dynamics under the combined action of particle collisions, particle–surface contact and adhesive interactions is simulated and aggregated to obtain global system behavior. The formulations to compute the forces and momentums developed at the particles are explained in details. The environment and gravity forces are considered as well as the contact forces that occur due the contact between particles and walls, like normal contact forces, frictional contact forces, damping and adhesive bond. The rolling phenomenon is also taken into account and is presented using a standard formulation. A numerical algorithm adapted from Zohdi is also presented. A few tridimensional examples of classical physics are selected to validate the formulations and the numerical program developed and to provide an illustration of the applicability of the numerical integration scheme. For this purpose, each analytical formulation is demonstrated to compare and analyze the numerical results with the analytical one. At the end of this article, a few tridimensional examples of granular materials are simulated. This article contributes to the study of granular materials including the rotation phenomenon using particle methods.
KeywordsParticle method DEM Explicit solution Rolling Granular materials
The authors wish to express sincere appreciation to the independent public foundation Capes (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília-DF, Brazil), which mission is to foster research and the scientific and technological development. This work was supported by Capes, under the Grants BEX2565/15-3. The authors would like to thank the CRML (Computational Materials Research Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, USA).
This study was funded by the independent public foundation Capes (“Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior”, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília-DF, Brazil) (Grant Number BEX 2565/15-3).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Regarding the conflict of interest, the author Alex Alves Bandeira has received research grants from Capes to stay one year in University of California, at Berkeley, to developed his post-doc. The author Tarek Ismail Zohdi, coordinator of the CRML (Computational Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, at Berkeley, USA), was his supervisor in this research and kindly welcomed the first author in his Laboratory. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The only requirement of the Capes foundation is to mention its collaboration in the acknowledgments in the publication, as shown in Acknowledgements.
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