The Roadmap From Allergic Rhinitis to Asthma

  • Ricardo J. SaranzEmail author
  • Alejandro Lozano
  • Natalia A. Lozano
  • Graciela Alegre
  • Marina F. Ponzio
Allergic Rhinitis (J Maspero, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Allergic Rhinitis
  2. Topical Collection on Allergic Rhinitis


Purpose of review

Upper and lower airways display some common characteristic described as a holistic model. Because rhinitis may proceed asthma, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms and risk factors responsible for the progression from rhinitis to asthma.

Recent findings

Subclinical lower airway abnormalities have been observed in patients with rhinitis without asthma. Recent evidence indicates that these patients may have an increased risk of developing asthma. Environmental and genetic factors can contribute to enhance this possibility. The treatments of rhinitis have also been shown to be beneficial to the lower airway, and therefore potentially modify the natural evolution of the atopic march.


Lower airway disease is a good predictor for the roadmap from rhinitis to asthma. The shared genetic link and environmental factors could be essential for this progression. Albeit treatment of rhinitis has a beneficial effect on lower airway defects, their role to prevent the progression to asthma remains yet to be confirmed.


Rhinitis Lung function tests Bronchial hyper-reactivity Airway remodeling Allergic march Genetic linkage analyses 



The present review was performed with funds from the Secretaría de Investigación, Universidad Católica de Córdoba.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ricardo Saranz declares that he has no conflict of interest. Alejandro Lozano declares that he has no conflict of interest. Natalia Lozano declares that she has no conflict of interest. Graciela Alegre declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marina Ponzio Biol declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Clínica Universitaria Reina Fabiola, Allergy and Immunology DivisionUniversidad Católica de CórdobaCórdobaArgentina
  2. 2.INICSA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Cátedra de Fisiología Humana Facultad de Ciencias MédicasUniversidad Nacional de CórdobaCórdobaArgentina

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