Advertisement

Emerging viruses in older population Chikungunya, West Nile fever and Dengue

  • Lidvine Godaert
  • Moustapha Dramé
  • Claire Roubaud-BaudronEmail author
Point of View

There is a worldwide spread of vector-borne diseases due to several factors: it is easy for humans or vectors to travel by plane or boat from a continent to another one, climate changes allow mosquitoes to increase their abundance and geographical distribution worldwide, and urbanization and high population density favor inter-humans disease transmission. An outbreak of arboviral disease may occur when these three following conditions are met: the presence of a competent vector in an area with an infection-naïve population and viraemic travelers [1]. In Europe, competent vectors are present like Aedes albopictus, A. aegypti or Culex pipiens, European population is in majority, naïve for West Nile virus (WNV) infection, Chikungunya or dengue and finally travelers from endemic area are potentially infected when they come back to Europe. These emerging diseases do not spare older population. They use to travel in endemic area and for those who do not travel, naïve older population in...

Keywords

West Nile Fever Chikungunya Dengue Aged Aged 80 and over Elderly 

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors do not have any conflict of interest to declare which could influence the manuscript.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this review, informed consent was not required.

References

  1. 1.
    Barzon L (2018) Ongoing and emerging arbovirus threats in Europe. J Clin Virol 107:38–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2018.08.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chancey C, Grinev A, Volkova E et al (2015) The global ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus. Biomed Res Int 2015:376230.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/376230 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yeung MW, Shing E, Nelder M et al (2017) Epidemiologic and clinical parameters of West Nile virus infections in humans: a scoping review. BMC Infect Dis 17:609.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2637-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A et al (2001) The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344:1807–1814.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200106143442401 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Patel H, Sander B, Nelder MP (2015) Long-term sequelae of West Nile virus-related illness: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis 15:951–959.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00134-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kong KF, Delroux K, Wang X et al (2008) Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly. J Virol 82:7613–7623.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00618-08 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Montgomery RR (2017) Age-related alterations in immune responses to West Nile virus infection. Clin Exp Immunol 187:26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.12863 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richner JM, Gmyrek GB, Govero J et al (2015) Age-dependent cell trafficking defects in draining lymph nodes impair adaptive immunity and control of west Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog 11:e1005027.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005027 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thackray LB, Handley SA, Gorman MJ et al (2018) Oral antibiotic treatment of mice exacerbates the disease severity of multiple flavivirus infections. Cell Rep 22:3440–3453 e3446.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peterson LW, Artis D (2014) Intestinal epithelial cells: regulators of barrier function and immune homeostasis. Nat Rev Immunol 14:141–153.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nri3608 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simon F, Javelle E, Cabie A et al (2014) Societe de pathologie infectieuse de langue f (2015) French guidelines for the management of chikungunya (acute and persistent presentations). Med Mal Infect 45:243–263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2015.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yactayo S, Staples JE, Millot V et al (2016) Epidemiology of Chikungunya in the Americas. J Infect Dis 214:S441–S445.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw390 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chikungunya: case definitions for acute, atypical and chronic cases. Conclusions of an expert consultation, Managua, Nicaragua, 20-21 May 2015 (2015). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90:410-414Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Godaert L, Najioullah F, Bartholet S et al (2017) Atypical clinical presentations of acute phase chikungunya virus infection in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 65:2510–2515.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Godaert L, Bartholet S, Gazeuse Y et al (2018) Misdiagnosis of chikungunya virus infection: comparison of old and younger adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 66:1768–1772.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15492 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Godaert L, Bartholet S, Najioullah F et al (2017) Screening for Chikungunya virus infection in aged people: development and internal validation of a new score. PLoS ONE 12:e0181472.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181472 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Queyriaux B, Simon F, Grandadam M et al (2008) Clinical burden of chikungunya virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 8:2–3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70294-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Godaert L, Bartholet S, Najioullah F et al (2018) Long-term survival and clinical forms in the acute phase of Chikungunya virus infection in older Caribbeans. Trop Med Int Health.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13194 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Godaert L, Bartholet S, Najioullah F et al (2019) Long-term survival and clinical forms in the acute phase of Chikungunya virus infection in older Caribbeans. Trop Med Int Health 24:363–370.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13194 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Godaert L, Nicolon C, Bousquet L et al (2016) Clinical features and outcome one year after hospitalisation in a short-stay care geriatric unit for patients with Chikungunya virus infection: the martinique experience. Rev Geriatr 41:461–466Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guzman MG, Halstead SB, Artsob H et al (2010) Dengue: a continuing global threat. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:S7–16.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2460 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guzman MG, Kouri G, Bravo J et al (2002) Effect of age on outcome of secondary dengue 2 infections. Int J Infect Dis 6:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    WHO (2009) Dengue guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. World Health Organization (WHO) and the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Low JG, Ong A, Tan LK et al (2011) The early clinical features of dengue in adults: challenges for early clinical diagnosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1191.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001191 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin RJ, Lee TH, Leo YS (2017) Dengue in the elderly: a review. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 15:729–735.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2017.1358610 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee CC, Hsu HC, Chang CM et al (2013) Atypical presentations of dengue disease in the elderly visiting the ED. Am J Emerg Med 31:783–787.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2013.01.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowe EK, Leo YS, Wong JG et al (2014) Challenges in dengue fever in the elderly: atypical presentation and risk of severe dengue and hospital-acquired infection [corrected]. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8:e2777.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002777 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeriatricsUniversity Hospital of MartiniqueFort-De-France Cedex, MartiniqueFrance
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Research and InnovationUniversity Hospital of MartiniqueFort-De-France Cedex, MartiniqueFrance
  3. 3.Department of Public HealthUniversity of French West-IndiesFort-De-France Cedex, MartiniqueFrance
  4. 4.CHU Bordeaux, Pôle de Gérontologie CliniqueBordeauxFrance
  5. 5.Univ. Bordeaux, UMR INSERMBordeauxFrance

Personalised recommendations