Muscle endocrinology and its relation with nutrition
Recent years have demonstrated clear evidence that skeletal muscle is an active endocrine organ. During contraction of muscle fibers, the skeletal muscle produces and releases, into the blood stream, cytokines and other peptides, called myokines, thanks to which it can both communicate with cells locally within the muscle, in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, or with other distant tissues, exerting its endocrine effects. With the progress of sophisticated technologies, the interest towards the skeletal muscle secretome is rapidly grown and the discovery of new myokines represents a prolific field for the identification of new pharmacological approaches for the management and treatment of many clinical diseases. Considering the importance of the muscle proteome and the cross-talk with other organs, the preservation of a skeletal muscle in good health represents a fundamental aspect in life, especially in ageing. Sarcopenia is the age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, bringing to increases of the risk of adverse outcomes, such as physical disability and poor quality of life, as well as alteration of several hormonal networks. For that reasons, the scientific community has risen its interest to find new interventions to prevent and manage the sarcopenia. Adequate nutrition during ages plays a fundamental role in the health and function of the skeletal muscle and it can represents, alone or in combination with physical exercise, a possible preventive measure against sarcopenia. This review will overview the endocrinology of the skeletal muscle, making a focus on food intake as a strategy for preventing skeletal muscle decay.
KeywordsSkeletal muscle endocrinology Myokine Protein intake Nutrition Sarcopenia
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Statement of human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study, informed consent is not required.
- 9.Fischer CP (2006) Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 12:6–33Google Scholar
- 26.Grube L, Dellen R, Kruse F et al (2018) Mining the secretome of C2C12 muscle cells: data dependent experimental approach to analyze protein secretion using label-free quantification and peptide based analysis. J Proteome Res 17:879–890. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Ouchi N, Oshima Y, Ohashi K et al (2008) Follistatin-like 1, a secreted muscle protein, promotes endothelial cell function and revascularization in ischemic tissue through a nitric-oxide synthase-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 283:32802–32811. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M803440200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Hoogaars WMH, Jaspers RT (2018) Past, present, and future perspective of targeting myostatin and related signaling pathways to counteract muscle atrophy (Chapter 8). In: Xiao J (ed) Muscle atrophy, advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol 1088. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1435-3_8 Google Scholar
- 53.Cruz-Jentoft A, Baeyens J, Bauer J et al (2010) European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 57.Calvani R, Miccheli A, Landi F et al (2013) Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia. J Frailty Aging 2:38–53Google Scholar
- 61.Katsanos C, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M et al (2006) A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E381–E387. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00488.2005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 63.Panel on Macronutrients, Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fibers, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2005) Protein and amino acids. In: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. The National Academies Press, Washington DC, pp. 589–768. https://doi.org/10.17226/10490
- 67.Kim I, Schutzler S, Schrader A et al (2015) Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308:E21–E28. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00382.2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 87.Marzetti E, Cesari M, Calvani R et al (2018) The “Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies” (SPRINTT) randomized controlled trial: case finding, screening and characteristics of eligible participants. Exp Gerontol 113:48–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar