Vitamin D deficiency and risk of Helicobacter pylori infection in older adults: a cross-sectional study
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Vitamin D deficiency is known to cause increased predisposition to various infectious diseases and the addition of vitamin D to antimicrobial treatment may improve treatment responses. However, the relationship between vitamin D and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) remains to be determined.
To assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and H. pylori infection.
This cross-sectional study included patients aged 65 and over, who underwent gastroscopy and had gastric biopsy performed between 2010 and 2017. Of the 441 patients, 254 had available 25-hydroxyvitamin D level results and were included in the analyses. Patients were categorized into H. pylori (+) and H. pylori (−) groups, according to histopathological examination results of gastric biopsies. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/mL were defined as vitamin D deficiency.
Of all patients, 43 were H. pylori (+) and 211 were H. pylori (−). More patients had vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) in the H. pylori (+) group than the H. pylori (−) group (86% vs 67.3%, p = 0.014). The proportion of H. pylori (+) patients decreased across increasing quartiles of 25(OH) vitamin D levels (p for trend = 0.010). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of H. pylori infection after adjustment for age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.19–7.69, p = 0.020).
Vitamin D deficiency can be associated with increased risk of H. pylori infection. The potential protective effect of vitamin D against H. pylori infection and its possible role in the treatment of H. pylori should be evaluated in prospective trials.
KeywordsVitamin D deficiency Helicobacter pylori Aged Gastroscopy 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by institutional ethical board of Ankara University and was conducted in compliance with Declaration of Helsinki.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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