Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 95–100 | Cite as

Related factors of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults in Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging

  • Rui Han
  • Zhe TangEmail author
  • Lina MaEmail author
Original Article



To investigate the prevalence and related factors of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older residents in Beijing, China.


This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 2017 older individuals aged ≥ 60 years from Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging were included in this study. Information on demographic characteristics, life style, chronic disease and geriatric syndromes was collected. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination.


The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.6% in community-dwelling older residents in Beijing. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in women than it was in men and in rural areas than it was in urban areas, and increased with age. Logistic regression showed that older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.496–3.033, P < 0.001], illiteracy (OR = 1.200–2.434, P = 0.003), low income (OR = 1.268–3.906, P = 0.005), less social participation (OR = 1.011–2.147, P = 0.044), stroke (OR = 1.410–3.305, P < 0.001), hearing loss (OR = 1.231–2.295, P = 0.001), depression (OR = 1.115–2.385, P = 0.012) and disability (OR = 2.315–4.681, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for cognitive impairment.


The prevalence of cognitive impairment among the older adults in Beijing was high. More attention should be paid to the identification of and intervention for factors influencing cognitive impairment, and health education should be carried out to improve the quality of life of the older adults.


Cognitive impairment Older adults Related factor Community 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81600927) and Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals Clinical Medicine Development of Special Funding Support (ZYLX201706).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by ethics committee of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the participants.


  1. 1.
    Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York: World Health Organization, 19–22 June, 1946 (2017) Accessed 21 Mar 2017
  2. 2.
    Prince M, Comas-Herrera et al (2016) World Alzheimer report 2016: improving healthcare for people living with dementia: coverage, quality and costs now and in the future. Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI), LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wimo A, Guerchet M, Ali GC et al (2017) The worldwide costs of dementia 2015 and comparisons with 2010. Alzheimers Dement 13:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petersen RC (2011) Mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 364:2227–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu YT, Beiser AS, Breteler MMB et al (2017) The changing prevalence and incidence of dementia over time—current evidence. Nat Rev Neurol 13:327–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Song Y, Wang J (2010) Overview of Chinese research on senile dementia in mainland China. Ageing Res Rev 9(S1):S6–S12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tang Z, Meng C, Dong HQ et al (2002) Studies on the incidence of senile dementia in urban and rural areas of Beijing City. Chin J Gerontol 22:244–246Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu YT, Ali GC, Guerchet M et al (2018) Prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amjad H, Roth DL, Sheehan OC et al (2018) Underdiagnosis of dementia: an observational study of patterns in diagnosis and awareness in US older adults. J Gen Intern Med. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yaffe K (2018) Modifiable risk factors and prevention of dementia: what is the latest evidence? JAMA Intern Med 178:281–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma L, Zhao X, Tang Z et al (2015) Epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in the elderly in Beijing, China. PLoS One 10:1–8Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zimmer Z, Kaneda T, Tang Z et al (2010) Explaining late life urban vs rural health discrepancies in Beijing. Soc Forces 88:1885–1908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ma L, Tang Z, Sun F et al (2015) Risk factors for depression among elderly subjects with hypertension living at home in China. Int J Clin Exp Med 8:2923–2928Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Farmer ME, Kittner SJ, Rae DS et al (1995) Education and change in cognitive function: the epidemiologic catchment area study. Ann Epidemiol 5:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woo J, Ho SC, Lau S et al (1994) Prevalence of cognitive impairment and associated factors among elderly Hong Kong Chinese aged 70 years and over. Neuroepidemiology 13:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meng C, Tang Z, Chan P (2000) The longitudinal study of risk factors of cognitive decline in elderly. Chin Geriatric J 19:211–214Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rabbitt P, Diggle P, Smith D et al (2001) Identifying and separating the effects of practice and of cognitive aging during a large longitudinal study of elderly community residents. Neuropsychologia 39:532–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen HT, Black SA, Ray LA et al (2002) Predictors of decline in MMSE scores among older Mexican Americans. Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cricco M, Simonsick EM, Foley DJ (2001) The impact of insomnia on cognitive functioning in older adults. Am Geriatr Soc 49:1185–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foley D, Monjan A, Masaki K et al (2001) Daytime sleepiness is associated with 3-year incident dementia and cognitive decline in older Japanese-American men. Am Geriatr Soc 49:1628–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burke SL, Maramaldi P, Cadet T et al (2016) Associations between depression, sleep disturbance, and apolipoprotein E in the development of Alzheimer’s disease: dementia. Int Psychogeriatr 28:1409–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams P, Lord SR (1997) Effects of group exercise on cognitive functioning and mood in older woman. Aust N Z J Public Health 21:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bowling A, Pikhartova J, Dodgeon B (2016) Is mid-life social participation associated with cognitive function at age 50? Results from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). BMC Psychol 4:58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ma L, Zhang L, Zhang Y et al (2017) Cognitive frailty in China: results from china comprehensive geriatric assessment study. Front Med 4:174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zheng Y, Fan S, Liao W et al (2017) Hearing impairment and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Neurol Sci 38:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knight MJ, Baune BT (2017) Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valkanova V, Ebmeier KP, Allan CL (2017) Depression is linked to dementia in older adults. Practitioner 261:11–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Geriatric Healthcare Center, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Key Laboratory on Neurodegenerative Disease of Ministry of EducationXuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Geriatrics, China National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric DisordersXuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations