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Psychometric properties of the Weight Locus of Control Scale (MWLCS): study with Spanish individuals of different anthropometric nutritional status

  • A. Cebolla
  • C. Botella
  • L. Galiana
  • F. Fernández-Aranda
  • E. Toledo
  • D. Corella
  • Jordi Salas-Salvadó
  • M. Fitó
  • D. Romaguera
  • J. Wärnberg
  • L. L. Serra-Majem
  • X. Pintó
  • P. Buil-Cosiales
  • J. V. Sorlí
  • A. Díaz-López
  • R. De la Torre
  • M. Fernández de Mott
  • B. V. Díaz González
  • E. Corbella
  • A. Yañez
  • R. BañosEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

The Multidimensional Weight Locus of Control Scale (MWLCS) measures a person’s beliefs regarding the locus of control or lack of locus of control over his/her body weight.

Purpose

We aim to evaluate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the MWLCS with Spanish normal weight, overweight and obese samples.

Methods

The research was carried out in two different studies. The first included a sample of 140 normal weight participants, selected out of a 274 sample recruited with an online survey. Study 2 was carried out in a sample of 633 participants recruited from the PREDIMED-Plus study. Out of them, 558 participants fulfilled the weight criteria and were categorized into: overweight (BMI 25 − < 29.99; N = 170), obese class I (BMI 30 − < 34.99; N = 266), and obese class II (BMI 35 − < 39.99; N = 122). Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure of the MWLCS, and reliabilities and Spearman’s correlations were estimated. Invariance measurement was tested across the three subgroups of weight in Study 2.

Results

A three-factor structure indicating weight locus of control factors (internal, chance, and powerful others) was supported, both via EFA in the normal weight sample and CFA in the overweight and obese samples. In the normal weight sample, the powerful others dimension was positively related to BMI and the dimensions of the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire. Additionally, the scale showed evidence of scalar invariance across the groups with different weight conditions.

Conclusions

This scale seems to be a psychometrically appropriate instrument and its use is highly recommended when designing interventions for overweight or obese individuals.

Level of evidence

Level V, descriptive study.

Keywords

Locus of control Obesity Health Weight Multidimensional weight locus of control scale 

Notes

Acknowledgements

CIBEROBN is an initiative of the ISCIII (Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain). We thank the PREDIMEDPLUS Biobank Network, part of the National Biobank Platform of Instituto de Salud Carlos III for storing and managing biological samples. We thank to Research Council (Grant 340918) and PROMETEO Grant (17/2017) from the Generalitat Valenciana. The PREDIMED-Plus trial was supported by the official Spanish Institutions for funding scientific biomedical research, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn) and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS), which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (four coordinated FIS projects leaded by J.S.-S. and J.Vi., including the following projects: PI13/00673, PI13/00492, PI13/00272, PI13/01123, PI13/00462, PI13/00233, PI13/02184, PI13/00728, PI13/01090, PI13/01056, PI14/01722, PI14/00636, PI14/00618, PI14/00696, PI14/01206, PI14/01919, PI14/00853, PI14/01374, PI14/00972, PI14/00728, PI14/01471, PI16/00473, PI16/00662, PI16/01873, PI16/01094, PI16/00501, PI16/00533, PI16/00381, PI16/00366, PI16/01522, PI16/01120, PI17/00764, PI17/01183, PI17/00855, PI17/01347, PI17/00525, PI17/01827, PI17/00532, PI17/00215, PI17/01441, PI17/00508, PI17/01732, and PI17/00926), the Especial Action Project entitled: Implementación y evaluación de una intervención intensiva sobre la actividad física Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant to J.S.-S., the European Research Council (Advanced Research Grant 2013–2018, 340918) to M.Á.M.-G., the Recercaixa grant to J.S.-S. (2013ACUP00194), grants from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI0458/2013, PS0358/2016, and PI0137/2018), a grant from the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/017), a SEMERGEN grant, and funds from the European Regional Development Fund (CB06/03).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study protocol and procedures were approved according to the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki by the Research Ethics Committees from all the participating institutions.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cebolla
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Botella
    • 2
    • 3
  • L. Galiana
    • 4
  • F. Fernández-Aranda
    • 2
    • 5
  • E. Toledo
    • 15
  • D. Corella
    • 2
    • 7
  • Jordi Salas-Salvadó
    • 2
    • 8
  • M. Fitó
    • 2
    • 9
  • D. Romaguera
    • 2
    • 10
  • J. Wärnberg
    • 2
    • 11
  • L. L. Serra-Majem
    • 2
    • 12
  • X. Pintó
    • 2
    • 13
  • P. Buil-Cosiales
    • 6
  • J. V. Sorlí
    • 2
    • 7
  • A. Díaz-López
    • 2
    • 8
  • R. De la Torre
    • 2
    • 9
  • M. Fernández de Mott
    • 2
    • 11
  • B. V. Díaz González
    • 2
    • 12
  • E. Corbella
    • 2
    • 13
  • A. Yañez
    • 2
    • 14
  • R. Baños
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department Personality, Evaluation and Psychological TreatmentUniversitat de ValènciaValènciaSpain
  2. 2.CIBER Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn)Instituto Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of Basic Psychology, Clinic and PsychobiologyUniversitat Jaume ICastellóSpain
  4. 4.Department of Methodology for the Behavioral SciencesUniversitat de ValènciaValènciaSpain
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Hospital of Bellvitge-IDIBELLBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Servicio Navarro de Salud-Atención PrimariaInstitute for Health ResearchPamplonaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Preventive MedicineUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  8. 8.Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Nutrition unit; Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV); University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Nutrition UnitUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliReusSpain
  9. 9.Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM)BarcelonaSpain
  10. 10.Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Illes Balears (IdISBa)University Hospital of Son EspasesPalma de MallorcaSpain
  11. 11.Department of NursingUniversity of Málaga-IBIMAMálagaSpain
  12. 12.Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), Preventive Medicine Service, Centro Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health ServiceUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas PalmasSpain
  13. 13.Lipid Unit, Department of Internal MedicineBellvitge BiomedicalResearch Institute (IDIBELL)-Hospital Universitari de BellvitgeL’Hospitalet de LlobregatSpain
  14. 14.Department of Nursing and PhysiotherapyUniversitat de les Illes BalearsPalma de MallorcaSpain
  15. 15.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Navarra, Institute for Health ResearchPamplonaSpain

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