Emotion regulation, emotion recognition, and empathy in adolescents with anorexia nervosa
Emotional functions may play an important role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The onset of the disorder generally occurs during adolescence, which is a critical period of emotional development. However, most studies that evaluated emotional functions in AN were conducted in adult patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate emotion regulation, emotion recognition, and empathy skills in adolescent girls with AN by controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms, childhood traumatic experiences, and attachment security on emotional functions.
Thirty-two adolescent girls with AN and 32 healthy counterparts completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and the Child and Adolescent KA-SI Empathic Tendency Scale-Adolescent Form.
The results revealed that adolescents with AN were found to have more difficulties in emotion regulation, higher alexithymic tendencies, and lower empathy skills compared with the control group. However, emotion recognition was not found to be significantly different between the two groups. These results were the same when controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms, childhood traumatic experiences, and attachment security except for empathy skills. Alexithymia and depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents with AN.
Considering the results, it seems that emotion regulation and alexithymia may play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of AN. Accordingly, it is necessary to focus on the improvement of these skills during the treatment of AN. Furthermore, interventions promoting these skills during adolescence may be preventive.
Level of evidence
Level III, case–control study.
KeywordsAdolescent Anorexia nervosa Emotion regulation Emotion recognition Alexithymia Empathy
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hacettepe University, Medical Faculty.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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