The interaction between dietary inflammatory index and 6 P21 rs2010963 gene variants in metabolic syndrome

  • Mahdieh Abbasalizad FarhangiEmail author
  • Mahdi Vajdi
  • Leila Nikniaz
  • Zeinab Nikniaz
Original Article



The Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, promotes vascular and capillary permeability and also is involved in inflammation. VEGF gene has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between inflammatory potential of a diet and + 405 VEGF C/G (rs2010963) polymorphism and metabolic components in patients with metabolic syndrome.


One hundred fifty patients with metabolic syndrome and fifty healthy individuals were enrolled. A semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary assessments and dietary inflammatory index (DII) calculation. Biochemical assays including fasting serum glucose (FSG), serum insulin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), liver enzymes and lipid profile were measured. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used for the determination of gene polymorphism.


In the current study, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations compared with healthy subjects. Patients with lower DII quartiles and lower inflammatory potential of the diet had lower waist to hip ratio (WHR) and lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) compared with patients in higher DII quartiles (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients and healthy subjects in second quartile of DII had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations compared with subjects in the first quartile; also healthy subjects in third quartile had significantly higher triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations compared with subjects in second quartile (P < 0.05). Among different genotypes of 6 P21 rs2010963 gene variants in patients with metabolic syndrome, CC genotype indicated the highest DII compared with other genotypes (P < 0.05).


The current study revealed the association between DII and metabolic risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

Level of evidence

Level III, case-control analytic study.


Dietary Inflammatory Index Vascular endothelial growth factor Metabolic syndrome Genotype 



Analysis of variance


Coronary artery disease


Cardiovascular disease


Metabolic syndrome


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Total cholesterol


Tumor necrosis factor-α


Dietary inflammatory index


C-reactive protein




Fasting serum glucose


Matrix metalloproteinase-3


Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism


Tehran lipid and glucose study


Vascular endothelial growth factor


National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III



We thank all of the study participants.

Author contributions

All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. MAF designed the idea of the project, performed the statistical analysis, wrote the first draft of the manuscript and revised it, MV was involved in manuscript revision and LN and ZN both were involved in the data collection, laboratory assessments and manuscript drafting.


The work has been granted by a grant from Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The study protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Informed consent

All of the participants signed and approved a written informed consent before participation in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Novelty statement

This work is the first study evaluates the gene-nutrient interaction from the perspective of DII-gene interactions.

Supplementary material

40519_2019_729_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mahdi Vajdi
    • 3
  • Leila Nikniaz
    • 4
  • Zeinab Nikniaz
    • 5
  1. 1.Nutrition Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Drug Applied Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Research Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research InstituteTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research InstituteTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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