Sleep quality as predictor of BMI in non-depressed caregivers of people with dementia
- 44 Downloads
Although most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children and adolescents have found a link between short duration of sleep and obesity, the literature related to adults provides a non-consensual framework. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sleep quality and BMI in a population of caregivers looking after people suffering from dementia, with a view to identifying the moderating role of depressive symptoms in the relationship between sleep problems and BMI.
A total of 117 subjects took part in the study, filling in a Sociodemographic Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Eating behavior Questionnaire and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression.
Depressive symptoms were greater in females than in males. The sample was divided into two subgroups based on depressive-symptom scores. Only within the subsample with low depressive symptoms, higher sleep disturbances influenced BMI positively. Within this subsample of participants with low depressive symptoms, the variables that seem to play a pivotal role in explaining a high BMI are: female gender, sleep problems, and diet quality, while within the subsample with high depressive symptoms only the female gender factor was found to influence BMI.
Depressive symptoms seem to act as moderators in the relationship between sleep and BMI. They should be evaluated to identify the risk of high BMI, and to differentiate clinical intervention, at least in this population, which experiences the stress of caregiving chronically, though not suffering from clinical eating disorders.
Level of evidence
Level II, cross-sectional study.
KeywordsEating disorders Obesity Mediterranean diet Sleep quality Depression Caregiving
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The last-mentioned author is also the Editor of the Topical Collection where the manuscript is submitted.
All the procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its successive amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Psychology Department, Sapienza University of Rome.
Informed consent was obtained individually from all the participants included in the study.
- 1.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, Gangwisch J, Grandner MA, Kushida C (2015) Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy Of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep 38:843–844. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4716 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 2.National Sleep Foundation (2005) Summary of findings. https://sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/2005_summary_of_findings.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2018
- 12.Gildner TE, Liebert MA, Kowal P, Chatterji S, Josh Snodgrass J (2014) Sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk among older adults from six middle-income countries: findings from the study on global ageing and adult health. Am J Hum Biol 26:803–812. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22603 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Vaatainen S, Tuomilehto H, Saramies J, Tuomilehto J, Uusitalo H, Hussi E, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Martikainen J (2013) The health-related quality-of-life impact of nocturnal awakenings in the middle-aged and older Finnish population. Qual Life Res 22:2737–2748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-013-0404-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Brummett BH, Babyak MA, Siegler IC, Vitaliano PP, Ballard EL, Gwyther LP, Williams RB (2006) Associations among perceptions of social support, negative affect, and quality of sleep in caregivers and noncaregivers. Health Psychol 25(2):220–225. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Baglioni C, Battagliese G, Feige B, Spiegelhalder K, Nissen C, Voderholzer U, Lombardo C, Riemann D (2011) Insomnia as a predictor of depression: a meta-analytic evaluation of longitudinal epidemiological studies. J Affect Disord 135:10–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.01.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar