Psychometric properties and gender invariance of the simplified Chinese version of Night Eating Questionnaire in a large sample of mainland Chinese college students
- 170 Downloads
The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) is the most frequently used instrument for assessing night eating syndrome (NES), and it has been translated to many languages, including a traditional Chinese version in Taiwan. However, significant differences exist in the social, linguistic, and cultural contexts between mainland China and Taiwan. For its use in mainland China, a simplified Chinese version is needed and its psychometric properties should be further evaluated. Thus, the current study aimed to obtain a simplified Chinese NEQ (SC-NEQ) and validate its psychometric properties.
According to standard procedures, the SC-NEQ was obtained by language transformation from the traditional Chinese version of NEQ. The SC-NEQ was then administered to 1273 mainland Chinese college students recruited from three provinces in mainland China.
The four-factor structure of the original English NEQ (morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, mood/sleep, and nocturnal ingestions) was confirmed in the current sample. Moreover, a second-order model also fitted the data well. The SC-NEQ showed good reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha and omega of 0.70 and 0.83, respectively. The total score of the SC-NEQ was significantly and moderately correlated with eating pathology (r = .35, p < .01). Strong measurement invariance across gender groups was also supported.
These findings suggest that the SC-NEQ can be a useful tool to assess NES in mainland China.
Level of evidence
V, descriptive (cross-sectional) study.
KeywordsNight eating syndrome Night eating questionnaire Validation Simplified Chinese
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the research office in Hunan Institute of Technology that is responsible for research ethics, and all procedures in this study were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and later amendments.
Written consent forms were obtained from all participants.
- 1.American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 13.Allison KC, Lundgren JD, O’Reardon JP, Martino NS, Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Crosby RD, Engel SG, Stunkard AJ (2008) The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ): psychometric properties of a measure of severity of the night eating syndrome. Eat Behav 9(1):62–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.03.007 Google Scholar
- 15.Latzer Y, Tzischinsky O, Hason MR, Allison K (2014) Reliability and cross-validation of the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ): Hebrew version. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 51(1):68–73Google Scholar
- 16.Aloi M, Rania M, De Fazio P, Vinai P, Tagliabue A, Allison KC, Segura-Garcia C (2017) Validation of the Italian version of the Night Eating Questionnaire (I-NEQ). J Psychopathol 23:137–144Google Scholar
- 20.Dantas GM, Pinto TF, Pereira EDB, Magalhã RM, Bruin VMSD, Bruin PFCD (2012) Validation of a new Brazilian version of the. Sleep Sci 5 (1):7–13Google Scholar
- 21.Luce KH, Crowther JH (1999) The reliability of the eating disorder examination—self-report questionnaire version (EDE-Q). Int J Eat Disord 25(3):349–351. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199904)25:3<349::AID-EAT15>3.0.CO;2-MGoogle Scholar
- 29.Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int J Eat Disord 2(2):15–34. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X(198321)2:2<15::AID-EAT2260020203>3.0.CO;2-6Google Scholar
- 30.Lee S, Lee AM, Leung T, Yu H (1997) Psychometric properties of the eating disorders inventory (EDI-1) in a nonclinical Chinese population in Hong Kong. Int J Eat Disord 21(2):187–194. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199703)21:2<187::AID-EAT10>3.0.CO;2-#Google Scholar
- 31.Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educ Psychol Meas 20(1):141–151Google Scholar
- 32.Horn JL (1965) A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika 30(2):179–185Google Scholar
- 34.Lubke G, Muthén B (2004) Factor-analyzing Likert scale data under the assumption of multivariate normality complicates a meaningful comparison of observed groups or latent classes. Struct Equ Model 11:514–534Google Scholar
- 36.Brown TA (2014) Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 39.Santos JRA (1999) Cronbach’s alpha: a tool for assessing the reliability of scales. J Extens 37(2):1–5Google Scholar
- 40.McDonald RP (2013) Test theory: a unified treatment. Psychology Press, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
- 44.Revelle WR (2017) psych: procedures for personality and psychological researchGoogle Scholar
- 45.Zhou B (2002) Predictive values of body mass index and waist circumference to risk factors of related diseases in Chinese adult population. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi 23 (1):5–10Google Scholar
- 47.Costello AB, Osborne JW (2005) Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Pract Assess Res Eval 10(7):1–9Google Scholar
- 49.Ainur A, Sayang M, Jannoo Z, Yap B (2017) Sample size and non-normality effects on goodness of fit measures in structural equation models. Pertanika J Sci Technol 25(2):575–586Google Scholar
- 50.Allison KC, Engel SG, Crosby RD, de Zwaan M, O’Reardon JP, Wonderlich SA, Mitchell JE, West DS, Wadden TA, Stunkard AJ (2008) Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome using item response theory analysis. Eat Behav 9(4):398–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2008.04.004 Google Scholar
- 52.Uher I, Bukova A, Hancova M, Rimárová K (2013) The night-eating syndrome, physical activity and BMI relationship in university students. Prace Naukowe Akademii im Jana Długosza w Częstochowie Kultura Fizyczna 12(2):225–233Google Scholar