Advertisement

Perceptions of tableware size in households of children and adolescents with obesity

  • Isabelle Mack
  • Helene Sauer
  • Katja Weimer
  • Dirk Dammann
  • Stephan Zipfel
  • Paul Enck
  • Martin Teufel
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Portion size influences energy intake and is an important factor when developing weight management strategies. The effect of tableware on food intake is less clear, especially in children. To date, the relationship between the body weight of individuals and the tableware used in their households has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the sizes of tableware in households of children and adolescents with obesity (OBE) in comparison to participants with normal-weight matched for age and gender (NW).

Methods

60 OBE (32 female, 26 male) and 27 NW (12 female, 15 male) aged between 9 and 17 years participated in a structured interview on the tableware used at home. Responses were standardized based on the selection of different sizes of tableware and everyday objects presented to the children.

Results

In households of NW, larger plates and bowls were used during meals and desserts compared to OBE. OBE drank out of larger bottles. Shapes and sizes of drinkware, the number of children drinking out of bottles and the cutlery used during dessert did not differ between the groups.

Conclusions

Drinking out of large bottles may be an unfavourable habit of OBE if they contain sugar-rich liquids. The use of smaller plates and bowls of OBE may result in multiple helpings being consumed and so contribute to an overall increased portion size.

Level of evidence

Level V, Descriptive study.

Keywords

Children Obesity Portion size Cutlery Tableware Bottle 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by Grants from the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung, Bad Homburg, Germany (2011_A135) and the “Minigraduiertenprogramm” of the Center for Nutritional Medicine (ZEM), Tübingen-Hohenheim, Germany. IM receives a grant by the Ministry of Science Baden-Württemberg and the European Social Fund.

Author contributions

IM was responsible for conception, funding, design and preparation of the study, data analysis, data interpretation and drafted the paper. HS was responsible for conception and design of the study and acquired data. DD and SZ were responsible for conception and design of the study. PE was responsible for conception, design and funding of the study. KW and MT were involved in data interpretation. All co-authors revised the manuscript. We thank all staff of the Fachkliniken Wangen i. A. for their support in carrying out the study and all colleagues at the University Hospital Tübingen who helped us with planning, implementation and realization. We thank Mr. Riyad Peeraully for reviewing the manuscript as a native English speaker.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Mack et al, the children and their parents provided informed consent prior to the children’s participation.

References

  1. 1.
    Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM (2006) Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 444(7121):840–846.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05482 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hollands GJ, Shemilt I, Marteau TM, Jebb SA, Lewis HB, Wei Y, Higgins JP, Ogilvie D (2015) Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD011045.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    DiSantis KI, Birch LL, Davey A, Serrano EL, Zhang J, Bruton Y, Fisher JO (2013) Plate size and children’s appetite: effects of larger dishware on self-served portions and intake. Pediatrics 131(5):e1451–e1458.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2330 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wansink B, van Ittersum K, Payne CR (2014) Larger bowl size increases the amount of cereal children request, consume, and waste. J Pediatr 164(2):323–326.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.09.036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Ittersum K, Wansink B (2013) Extraverted children are more biased by bowl sizes than introverts. PLoS One 8(10):e78224.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078224 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wansink B, van Ittersum K (2003) Bottoms up! The Influence of elongation on pouring and consumption volume. J Consum Res 30(3):455–463.  https://doi.org/10.1086/378621 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fisher JO, Birch LL, Zhang J, Grusak MA, Hughes SO (2013) External influences on children’s self-served portions at meals. Int J Obes (Lond) 37(7):954–960.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wansink B, Payne C, Werle C (2008) Consequences of belonging to the “clean plate club”. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 162(10):994–995.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.162.10.994 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wansink B, Wansink CS (2010) The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium. Int J Obes (Lond) 34(5):943–944.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2010.37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wansink B (2010) From mindless eating to mindlessly eating better. Physiol Behav 100(5):454–463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.05.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wansink B, van Ittersum K, Painter JE (2006) Ice cream illusions bowls, spoons, and self-served portion sizes. Am J Prev Med 31(3):240–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.04.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wansink B, Cheney MM (2005) Super Bowls: serving bowl size and food consumption. Jama 293(14):1727–1728.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.14.1727 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Halverson KH, Meengs JS (2007) Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals. Appetite 49(3):652–660.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.04.005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shah M, Schroeder R, Winn W, Adams-Huet B (2011) A pilot study to investigate the effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight and overweight/obese women. J Hum Nutr Diet 24(6):612–615.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2011.01210.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yip W, Wiessing KR, Budgett S, Poppitt SD (2013) Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women. Appetite 69:102–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2013.05.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raghubir P, Krishna A (1999) Vital dimensions in volume perception: can the eye fool the stomach? J Mark Res 36(3):313–326.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3152079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wansink B, van Ittersum K (2005) Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: comparative study of effect of practice and concentration. Bmj 331(7531):1512–1514.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1512 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sauer H, Krumm A, Weimer K, Horing B, Mazurak N, Gulewitsch MD, Hellmond F, Dammann D, Binder W, Linse P, Zipfel S, Ehehalt S, Binder G, Demircioglu A, Muth ER, Enck P, Mack I (2014) PreDictor research in obesity during medical care—weight Loss in children and adolescents during an INpatient rehabilitation: rationale and design of the DROMLIN study. J Eat Disord 2:7.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2050-2974-2-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kromeyer-Hauschild K, Wabitsch M, Kunze D, Geller F, Geiß HC, Hesse V, von Hippel A, Jaeger U, Johnsen D, Korte W, Menner K, Müller G, Müller JM, Niemann-Pilatus A, Remer T, Schaefer F, Wittchen H-U, Zabransky S, Zellner K, Ziegler A, Hebebrand J (2001) Perzentile für den Body Mass Index für das Kindes- und Jugendalter unter Heranziehung verschiedener deutscher Stichproben. Monatschrift Kinderheilkunde 149(8):807–818.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001120170107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diehl JM (1999) Attitude to eating and body weight by 11- to 16-year-old adolescents. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 129(5):162–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG (2009) Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 41(4):1149–1160.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Ser B (Methodol) 57(1):289–300.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2346101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Biro G, Hulshof KF, Ovesen L, Amorim Cruz JA (2002) Selection of methodology to assess food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 56(Suppl 2):S25–S32.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj/ejcn/1601426 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elfhag K, Tynelius P, Rasmussen F (2010) Family links of eating behaviour in normal weight and overweight children. Int J Pediatr Obes 5(6):491–500.  https://doi.org/10.3109/17477160903497001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wansink B, Payne CR (2007) Counting bones: environmental cues that decrease food intake. Percept Mot Skills 104(1):273–276.  https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.104.1.273-276 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Libotte E, Siegrist M, Bucher T (2014) The influence of plate size on meal composition. Lit Rev Exp Appet 82:91–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robinson E, Sheen F, Harrold J, Boyland E, Halford JC, Masic U (2015) Dishware size and snack food intake in a between-subjects laboratory experiment. Public Health Nutr  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015001408 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rolls BJ (2000) The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. J Nutr 130(2S Suppl):268S–271SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schusdziarra V, Hausmann M, Wittke C, Mittermeier J, Kellner M, Wagenpfeil S, Erdmann J (2010) Contribution of energy density and food quantity to short-term fluctuations of energy intake in normal weight and obese subjects. Eur J Nutr 49(1):37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-009-0046-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rolls BJ (2014) What is the role of portion control in weight management? Int J Obes (Lond) 38(Suppl 1):S1–S8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.82 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Throop EM, Skinner AC, Perrin AJ, Steiner MJ, Odulana A, Perrin EM (2014) Pass the popcorn: “obesogenic” behaviors and stigma in children’s movies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22(7):1694–1700.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20652 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gaina A, Sekine M, Chandola T, Marmot M, Kagamimori S (2009) Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren. Int J Obes (Lond) 33(7):753–757.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2009.103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rolls BJ (2010) Plenary Lecture 1: Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 69(1):70–79.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665109991674 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Geier AB, Rozin P, Doros G (2006) Unit bias. A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychol Sci 17(6):521–525.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01738.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mishra A, Mishra H, Masters TM (2012) The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: a field study. J Consum Res 38(5):791–795.  https://doi.org/10.1086/660838 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Robinson E, Almiron-Roig E, Rutters F, de Graaf C, Forde CG, Tudur Smith C, Nolan SJ, Jebb SA (2014) A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger. Am J Clin Nutr 100(1):123–151.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.081745 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ferriday D, Bosworth ML, Lai S, Godinot N, Martin N, Martin AA, Rogers PJ, Brunstrom JM (2015) Effects of eating rate on satiety: a role for episodic memory? Physiol Behav.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.06.038 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ritze Y, Bardos G, D’Haese JG, Ernst B, Thurnheer M, Schultes B, Bischoff SC (2014) Effect of high sugar intake on glucose transporter and weight regulating hormones in mice and humans. PLoS One 9(7):e101702.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101702 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bray GA, Popkin BM (2014) Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes Care 37(4):950–956.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-2085 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mack I, Sauer H, Weimer K, Dammann D, Zipfel S, Enck P, Teufel M (2014) Obese children and adolescents need increased gastric volumes in order to perceive satiety. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22(10):2123–2125.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20850 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Birch LL, McPheee L, Shoba BC, Steinberg L, Krehbiel R (1987) “Clean up your plate”: effects of child feeding practices on the conditioning of meal size. Learn Motiv 18:301–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0023-9690(87)90017-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Francis LA, Hofer SM, Birch LL (2001) Predictors of maternal child-feeding style: maternal and child characteristics. Appetite 37(3):231–243.  https://doi.org/10.1006/appe.2001.0427 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brown A, Lee M (2011) Maternal control of child feeding during the weaning period: differences between mothers following a baby-led or standard weaning approach. Matern Child Health J 15(8):1265–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-010-0678-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Mack
    • 1
  • Helene Sauer
    • 1
  • Katja Weimer
    • 1
  • Dirk Dammann
    • 2
  • Stephan Zipfel
    • 1
  • Paul Enck
    • 1
  • Martin Teufel
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical HospitalUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Fachkliniken Wangen i.A.Children Rehabilitation Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Allergies and PsychosomaticsWangen i.A.Germany
  3. 3.LVR-Clinic for Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations