Genetic and environmental relationships between eating behavior and symptoms of anxiety and depression
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To assess gender-specific genetic and environmental correlations between depressive and anxiety symptoms, and concurrent and follow-up eating behavior in Korean twins and their family members.
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms in subjects. To assess concurrent and follow-up relationships of the symptoms with eating behavior domains (restrained, emotional, and external eating), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire was administered to 2359 subjects at baseline (men, 48.5%; 42.0 ± 12.7 years; monozygotic twins, 33.7%) and to 1169 subjects at follow-up (men, 45.9%; 44.9 ± 11.6 years; monozygotic twins, 41.0%). A mixed linear model and bivariate analysis were applied.
After adjusting for age, twin and family effects, income, education, smoking status, alcohol use, exercise, and body mass index, depressive and anxiety symptoms were positively associated with concurrent and follow-up emotional and external eating, but not with restrained eating. The effect size of association with emotional eating increased in men in men over time, but decreased in women. Common genetic and environmental correlations showed a difference between genders, and their strength changed with time. Nevertheless, common genetic correlations were found between depressive and anxiety symptoms, and concurrent emotional eating, in both genders. There were common environmental correlations between anxiety symptoms, and concurrent restrained and emotional as well as follow-up emotional eating, in both genders.
There are similarities and differences in genetic and environmental relationships between depressive and anxiety symptoms and eating behaviors, based on gender and time of assessment.
Level of evidence
Level III, cohort study.
KeywordsEating behavior Depressive symptoms Anxiety symptoms Genetic correlation Environmental correlation
This work was supported by 2017 Inje University Busan Paik Hospital Research Grant.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by the 2016 Inje University Research Grant.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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