Male body dissatisfaction scale (MBDS): proposal for a reduced model

  • Wanderson Roberto da Silva
  • João Marôco
  • Christopher N. Ochner
  • Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini CamposEmail author
Original Article



To evaluate the psychometric properties of the male body dissatisfaction scale (MBDS) in Brazilian and Portuguese university students; to present a reduced model of the scale; to compare two methods of computing global scores for participants’ body dissatisfaction; and to estimate the prevalence of participants’ body dissatisfaction.


A total of 932 male students participated in this study. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the scale’s psychometric properties. Multi-group analysis was used to test transnational invariance and invariance in independent samples. The body dissatisfaction score was calculated using two methods (mean and matrix of weights in the CFA), which were compared. Finally, individuals were classified according to level of body dissatisfaction, using the best method.


The MBDS model did not show adequate fit for the sample and was, therefore, refined. Thirteen items were excluded and two factors were combined. A reduced model of 12 items and 2 factors was proposed and shown to have adequate psychometric properties. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the methods for calculating the score for body dissatisfaction, since the mean overestimated the scores. Among student participants, the prevalence of body dissatisfaction with musculature and general appearance was 11.2 and 5.3%, respectively.


The reduced bi-factorial model of the MBDS showed adequate validity, reliability, and transnational invariance and invariance in independent samples for Brazilian and Portuguese students. The new proposal for calculating the global score was able to more accurately show their body dissatisfaction.

No level of evidence Basic Science


Body dissatisfaction Males Musculature Validity 



Thank you to the development agencies: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do estado de São Paulo (FAPESP; 2014/03093-2, 2015/00228-7), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq; 142315/2014-1) for providing the financial resources for this study. Thank you to the professors (Maria da Graça Vinagre, Célia Simão de Oliveira, Maria Costa, Afonso Cavaco, Filipa Costa, José Santos, and Maria Caramona) and students (Moema Santana, Bianca Martins, Fernanda Maurício, and Andreia Caldeira) who assisted in collecting the Brazilian and Portuguese data.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved in Brazil and Portugal by the Ethics Committees for Research Involving Human Beings (UNESP-CAAE 29896214.0.0000.5426, ESEL#1413).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    Gadermann AM, Guhn M, Zumbo BD (2012) Estimating ordinal reliability for Likert-type and ordinal item response data: a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide. Prat Assess Res Eval 17(3):1–13Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson JK, Burke NL, Krawczyk R (2012) Measurement of Body Image in adolescence and adulthood. In: Cash T (ed) Encyclopedia of body image anbd human appearance. Elsevier, London, pp 512–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cash TF, Smolak L (2011) Body image: a handbook of science, practice, and prevention, 2nd edn. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dakanalis A, Zanetti AM, Riva G, Colmegna F, Volpato C, Madeddu F, Clerici M (2015) Male body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: moderating variables among men. J Health Psychol 20(1):80–90. doi: 10.1177/1359105313499198 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dakanalis A, Zanetti MA, Riva G, Clerici M (2013) Psychosocial moderators of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating disorders: a look at a sample of young Italian women. Revue Europeene Psychol Appl 63(5):323–334. doi: 10.1016/j.erap.2013.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dakanalis A, Timko A, Serino S, Riva G, Clerici M, Carra G (2016) Prospective psychosocial predictors of onset and cessation of eating pathology amongst college women. Eur Eat Disord Rev 24(3):251–256. doi: 10.1002/erv.2433 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitchison D, Mond J (2015) Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review. J Eat Disord 3:20. doi: 10.1186/s40337-015-0058-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yean C, Benau EM, Dakanalis A, Hormes JM, Perone J, Timko CA (2013) The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology. Front Psychol 4:887. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00887 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dakanalis A, Timko AC, Clerici M, Riva G, Carra G (2017) Objectified body consciousness (OBC) in eating psychopathology. Assessment 24(2):252–274. doi: 10.1177/1073191115602553 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dakanalis A, Carra G, Clerici M, Riva G (2015) Efforts to make clearer the relationship between body dissatisfaction and binge eating. Eat Weight Disord 20(1):145–146. doi: 10.1007/s40519-014-0152-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dakanalis A, Favagrossa L, Clerici M, Prunas A, Colmegna F, Zanetti MA, Riva G (2015) Body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: a latent structural equation modeling analysis of moderating variables in 18-to-28-year-old males. J Psychol 149(1–2):85–112. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2013.842141 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dakanalis A, Timko CA, Favagrossa L, Riva G, Zanetti MA, Clerici M (2014) Why do only a minority of men report severe levels of eating disorder symptomatology, when so many report substantial body dissatisfaction? Examination of exacerbating factors. Eat Disord 22(4):292–305. doi: 10.1080/10640266.2014.898980 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dakanalis A, Timko A, Madeddu F, Volpato C, Clerici M, Riva G, Zanetti AM (2015) Are the male body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity scales reliable and valid instruments? J Health Psychol 20(1):45–59. doi: 10.1177/1359105313498108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hildebrandt T, Walker DC, Alfano L, Delinsky S, Bannon K (2010) Development and validation of a male specific body checking questionnaire. Int J Eat Disord 43(1):77–87. doi: 10.1002/eat.20669 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caslini M, Crocamo C, Dakanalis A, Tremolada M, Clerici M, Carra G (2016) stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about anorexia and bulimia nervosa among italian undergraduates. J Nerv Ment Dis 204(12):916–924. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000606 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raevuori A, Keski-Rahkonen A, Hoek HW (2014) A review of eating disorders in males. Curr Opin Psychiatry 27(6):426–430. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000113 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dakanalis A, Pla-Sanjuanelo J, Caslini M, Volpato C, Riva G, Clerici M, Carrà G (2016) Predicting onset and maintenance of men’s eating disorders. Int J Clin Health Psychol 16(3):247–255. doi: 10.1016/j.ijchp.2016.05.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dakanalis A, Clerici M, Caslini M, Gaudio S, Serino S, Riva G, Carra G (2016) Predictors of initiation and persistence of recurrent binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in college men. Int J Eat Disord 49(6):581–590. doi: 10.1002/eat.22535 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rousseau A, Knotter A, Barbe P, Raich RM, Chabrol H (2005) Étude de validation de la version française du body shape questionnaire. L’Encéphale 31:162–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Drewnowski A, Yee DK (1987) Men and body image: are males satisfied with their body weight? Psychosom Med 49:626–634. doi: 10.1097/00006842-198711000-00008 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grogan S (2008) Body image: understanding dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holmes M, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Skouteris H, Broadbent J (2015) Understanding the link between body image and binge eating: a model comparison approach. Eat Weight Disord 20(1):81–89. doi: 10.1007/s40519-014-0141-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gray JJ, Ginsberg RL (2007) Muscle dissatisfaction an overview of psychological and cultural research and theory. In: Thompson J, Cafri G (eds) The muscular ideal: psychological, social, and medical perspectives. American Psychological Association, Washington DC, pp 15–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cash TF (2011) Crucial considerations in the assessment of body image. In: Cash T, Smolak L (eds) Body image: a handbook of science, practice and prevention. Body Image: a handbook of science, practice and prevention. The Guilford Press, Nova Iorque, pp 129–137Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Silva WR, Dias JCR, Maroco J, Campos JADB (2015) Factors that contribute to the body image concern of female college students. Rev Bras Epidemiol 18(4):785–797. doi: 10.1590/1980-5497201500040009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Banfield SS, McCabe MP (2002) An evaluation of the construct of the body image. Adolescence 37:373–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Costa LCF, Vasconcelos FAG (2010) Influence of socioeconomic, behavioral and nutritional factors on dissatisfaction with body image among female university students in Florianopolis, SC. Rev Bras Epidemiol 13(4):665–676. doi: 10.1590/S1415-790X2010000400011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sepulveda AR, Carrobles JA, Gandarilhas AM (2008) Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: an epidemiologic study. BMC Public Health 8:102. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-102 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ochner CN, Gray JG, Brickner K (2009) The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction. Eat Behav 10:197–201. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.06.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marôco J (2014) Análise de equações estruturais. 2a edn. Report number, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rousseaua A, Denieula M, Lentillon V, Valls M (2014) French validation of the male body dissatisfaction scale in a sample of young men. J Thér Comport Cogn 24(3):122–129. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcc.2014.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carvalho PHBd, Conti MA, Neves CM, Meireles JFF, Oliveira FC, Ferreira MEC (2015) Psychometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the male body dissatisfaction scale. Rev Psiquiatr Clín 42(4):90–94. doi: 10.1590/0101-60830000000056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hair JF, Black WC, Babin B, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (2005) Multivariate data analysis, 6th edn. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marôco J, Campos JADB, Vinagre MG, Pais-Ribeiro JL (2014) Brazil-Portugal transcultural adaptation of the social support satisfaction scale for college students. Psychol Res Rev 27(2):247–256. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201427205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Warren CS, Cepeda-Benito A, Gleaves DH, Moreno S, Rodriguez S, Fernandez MC, Fingeret MC, Pearson CA (2008) English and Spanish versions of the body shape questionnaire: measurement equivalence across ethnicity and clinical status. Int J Eat Disord 41:265–272. doi: 10.1002/eat.20492 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pope HG Jr, Gruber AJ, Mangweth B, Bureau B, deCol C, Jouvent R, Hudson JI (2000) Body image perception among men in three countries. Am J Psychiatry 157:1297–1301. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.8.1297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kim KH (2005) The relation among fit indexes, power and sample size in structural equation modeling. Struct Equ Modeling 12(3):368–390. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1203_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    WHO (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Technical Report Series, Geneva: World Health Organization WHOGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Onis DM, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 85(9):660–667. doi: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000900010 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    ABEP (2015) Brazilian economic classification criteria (Brazilian Criteria). Accessed January 2017
  41. 41.
    Carvalho PHBd, Ferreira MEC, Kotait M, Teixeira PC, Hearst N, Cordás TA, Conti MA (2013) Equivalências conceitual, semântica e instrumental: análises preliminares da versão em português (Brasil) da male body dissatisfaction scale (MBDS). Caderno Saúde Pública 29(2):403–409. doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2013000200027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kaplan RM, Saccuzzo DP (2012) Psychological testing. Principles, applications and issues, vol 8. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, CAGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dakanalis A, Zanetti MA, Clerici M, Madeddu F, Riva G, Caccialanza R (2013) Italian version of the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire. Psychometric proprieties and measurement invariance across sex, BMI-status and age. Appetite 71:187–195. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.08.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Silva WR, Costa D, Pimenta F, Maroco J, Campos JADB (2016) Psychometric evaluation of a unified Portuguese-language version (Brazil and Portugal) of the body shape questionnaire in female university students. Cadernos de Saúde Pública (Online) 32(7):1–12. doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00133715 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kline RB (1998) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fornell C, Larcker DF (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Marketing Res 18(1):39–50. doi: 10.2307/3151312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Campos JADB, Zucoloto ML, Bonafé FSS, Maroco J (2017) General oral health assessment index: a new evaluation proposal. Gerodontology 1:1–9. doi: 10.1111/ger.12270 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brown J, Bardoukas N (2013) Predictors of body dissatisfaction in asian and caucasian males: a preliminary test of a three factor model. Int J Mens Health 12(1):3. doi: 10.3149/jmh.1201.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hallsworth L, Wade T, Tiggemann M (2005) Individual differences in male body-image: an examination of self-objectification in recreational body builders. Br J Health Psychol 10(1):453–465. doi: 10.1348/135910705X26966 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wanderson Roberto da Silva
    • 1
  • João Marôco
    • 2
  • Christopher N. Ochner
    • 3
  • Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food and NutritionSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.William James Center for Research (WJCR)Institute of Psychological, Social and Life Sciences (ISPA)LisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Hospital Corporation of America, Physician Services GroupFort LauderdaleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Food and NutritionSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UNESP), São Paulo State University (UNESP)AraraquaraBrazil

Personalised recommendations