Is snack consumption associated with meal skipping in children and adolescents? The CASPIAN-IV study
- 359 Downloads
The present inquiry set to assess the relationship between snack consumption and meal skipping in Iranian children and adolescents.
Overall, 14,880 students, aged 6–18 years, were selected via multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. A validated questionnaire of food behaviors including questions on snacks consumption and taking/skipping meals was completed. Consuming and skipping meals and their related factors were reported in both crude and adjusted models.
Overall, 13,486 students with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years completed the study (90.6% participation rate). Among them, 32.08, 8.89, and 10.90% skipped breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Compared to their counterpart groups, the frequency of meal skipping was higher in girls, urban inhabitants, and students in higher school grades (P < 0.05). Snack consumption was associated with an increased odds ratio of meal skipping in many types of snack groups.
Meal skipping and snack consumption were frequent among Iranian children and adolescents. Evidence based interventions are proposed to improve the students’ eating habits.
KeywordsSnack consumption Meal skipping Children Adolescents
The study was funded by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.
This study was conducted by collaboration of 30 universities of Medical sciences in Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study was approved by ethical committees of all contributing organizations.
Informed written consent was obtained from students’ parents.
- 1.Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ et al (2011) National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9· 1 million participants. The Lancet 377:557–567. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62037-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Safiri S, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M et al (2015) Screen time and its relation to cardiometabolic risk among children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study. Iran J Public Health 44:35–44Google Scholar
- 6.Dietz WH (1998) Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 101:518–525Google Scholar
- 21.Klunklin S, Channoonmuang K (2006) Snack consumption in normal and undernourished preschool children in Northeastern Thailand. J-Med Assoc Thail 89:706Google Scholar
- 31.Ahadi Z, Qorbani M, Kelishadi R et al (2015) Association between breakfast intake with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and food consumption behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. Public Health 129:740–747. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.03.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh R, Motlagh M-E et al. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: the Caspian-IV study. Int J Prev Med. 2012; 3Google Scholar
- 46.Niemeier HM, Raynor HA, Lloyd-Richardson EE, Rogers ML, Wing RR (2006) Fast food consumption and breakfast skipping: predictors of weight gain from adolescence to adulthood in a nationally representative sample. J Adolesc Health 39:842–849. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.07.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar