Advertisement

Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale

  • Sandra Torres
  • Marta Camacho
  • Patrício Costa
  • Gabriela Ribeiro
  • Osvaldo Santos
  • Filipa Mucha Vieira
  • Isabel Brandão
  • Daniel Sampaio
  • Albino J. Oliveira-MaiaEmail author
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Food and Addiction

Abstract

Purpose

Rising rates of obesity have been recently associated to the novel concept of food addiction (FA). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the most widely used measure for examining FA (1) and analysis of its reliability and validity is expected to facilitate empirical research on the construct. Here, we tested the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the YFAS (P-YFAS), establishing its factor structure, reliability and construct validity.

Methods

Data were obtained from 468 Portuguese individuals, 278 sampled from non-clinical populations, and 190 among obese candidates for weight-loss surgery. A battery of self-report measures of eating behavior was applied.

Results

Confirmatory factor analysis verified a one-factor structure with acceptable fit, with item analysis suggesting the need to eliminate item 24 from the P-YFAS. Internal consistency (KR-20 = .82) and test–retest stability were adequate. Correlation analyses supported convergent and divergent validity of the P-YFAS, particularly in the clinical sample. Both FA symptom count and diagnosis, according to the P-YFAS, adequately discriminated between samples, with classification of FA met by 2.5 and 25.8% of the participants in the non-clinical and clinical samples, respectively.

Conclusions

These findings reinforce the use of P-YFAS in non-clinical and clinical populations. Future directions for extending YFAS validation are discussed.

Keywords

Food addiction Obesity Reward Psychometrics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Ashley Gearhardt (Department of Psychology, University of Michigan) for providing access to the Yale Food Addiction Scale and contributing to the adaptation process. We would also like to thank Centro Hospitalar de S. João, Hospital São Bernardo, Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, Hospital Espírito Santo de Évora, Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional, Universidade Atlântica and Universidade de Évora, in particular Ana André, André Ferreira, Andreia Santos, António-Roma-Torres, Armando Raimundo, Carlos Trindade, Cecília Silva, Cristina Pontes, Manuel Carvalho, Margarida Pegacho, Mónica Silva, Rita Fernandes and Sara Pacheco, for assistance with recruitment of participants.

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia through a Junior Research and Career Development Award from the Harvard Medical Portugal Program (HMSP/ICJ/0020/2011) to AJO-M and CPUP (UID/PSI/00050/2013) to ST, and a Grant from the BIAL Foundation (176/10) to AJO-M.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

40519_2016_349_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Burmeister JM, Hinman N, Koball A, Hoffmann DA, Carels RA (2013) Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss. Appetite 60:103–110. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C et al (2014) Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 384:766–781. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oliveira-Maia J, Roberts CD, Simon SA, Nicolelis MAL (2011) Gustatory and reward brain circuits in the control of food intake. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 36:31–59. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0179-7_3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schulte E, Joyner M, Potenza M, Grilo C, Gearhardt A (2015) Current considerations regarding food addiction. Curr Psychiatry Rep 17:1–8. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0563-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fortuna JL (2012) The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence. J Psychoact Drugs 44:56–63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2012.662092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD (2009) Food addiction: an examination of the diagnostic criteria for dependence. J Addict Med 3:1–7. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e318193c993 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gearhardt AN, White MA, Potenza MN (2011) Binge eating disorder and food addiction. Curr Drug Abus Rev 4:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis C, Carter JC (2009) Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite 53:1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.05.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meule A (2011) How prevalent is ‘food addiction’? Front Psychiatry 2:1–4. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00061 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davis C (2013) From passive overeating to “Food Addiction”: a spectrum of compulsion and severity. ISRN Obes 2013:1–20. doi: 10.1155/2013/435027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ziauddeen H, Fletcher PC (2013) Is food addiction a valid and useful concept? Obes Rev 14:19–28. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01046.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD (2009) Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite 52:430–436. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meule A, Gearhardt AN (2014) Five years of the Yale Food Addiction Scale: Taking stock and moving forward. Curr Addict Rep 1:193–205. doi: 10.1007/s40429-014-0021-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meule A, Gearhardt AN (2014) Food Addiction in the Light of DSM-5. Nutrients 6:3653–3671. doi: 10.3390/nu6093653 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meule A, Vögele C, Kübler A (2012) German translation and validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Diagnostica 58:115–126. doi: 10.1026/0012-1924/a000047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brunault P, Ballon N, Gaillard P, Réveillère C, Courtois R (2014) Validation of the French version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale: an examination of its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity in a nonclinical sample. Can J Psychiatry 59:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen G, Tang Z, Guo G, Liu X, Xiao S (2015) The Chinese version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale: an examination of its validation in a sample of female adolescents. Eat Behav 18:97–102. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.05.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Granero R, Hilker I, Agüera Z, Jiménez-Murcia S, Sauchelli S, Islam MA et al (2014) Food Addiction in a Spanish Sample of Eating Disorders: DSM-5 Diagnostic Subtype Differentiation and Validation Data. Eur Eat Disord Rev 22:389–396. doi: 10.1002/erv.2311 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Innamorati M, Imperatori C, Manzoni G, Lamis D, Castelnuovo G, Tamburello A et al (2015) Psychometric properties of the Italian Yale Food Addiction Scale in overweight and obese patients. Eat Weight Disord 20:119–127. doi: 10.1007/s40519-014-0142-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davis C, Curtis C, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL (2011) Evidence that food addiction is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite 57:711–717. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2011.08.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meule A, Heckel D, Kübler A (2012) Factor structure and item analysis of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Eur Eat Disord Rev 20:419–422. doi: 10.1002/erv.2189 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clark SM, Saules KK (2013) Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among a weight-loss surgery population. Eat Behav 14:216–219. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pursey KM, Stanwell P, Gearhardt AN, Collins CE, Burrows TL (2014) The prevalence of food addiction as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: a systematic review. Nutrients 6:4552–4590. doi: 10.3390/nu6104552 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lent MR, Eichen DM, Goldbacher E, Wadden TA, Foster GD (2014) Relationship of food addiction to weight loss and attrition during obesity treatment. Obesity 22:52–55. doi: 10.1002/oby.20512 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ribeiro G, Santos O, Camacho M, Torres S, Mucha-Vieira F, Sampaio D et al (2015) Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the power of food scale for use by adult populations in Portugal. Acta Med Port 28:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lowe MR, Butryn ML, Didie ER, Annunziato RA, Thomas JG, Crerand CE et al (2009) The Power of Food Scale. A new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment. Appetite 53:114–118. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.05.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Viana V, Sinde S (2003) Estilo Alimentar: Adaptação e validação do Questionário Holandês do Comportamento Alimentar. Psic Teor Inve Prat 1:59–71Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van Strien T, Frijters JER, Bergers G, Defares PB (1986) The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord 5:295–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Machado PP, Gonçalves S, Martins C, Soares IC (2001) The Portuguese version of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Evaluation of its psychometric properties. Eur Eat Disord Rev 9:43–52. doi: 10.1111/papt.12048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Polivy J (1983) Development and validation of a multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Int J Eat Disord 2:15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tapadinhas AR, Pais-Ribeiro J (2012) Validação da escala de ingestão compulsiva (BES). Um estudo com uma amostra de obesos portugueses. Atas do 9º Congresso Nacional de Psicologia da Saúde. Lisboa: Placebo Editora. pp 1330–35Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, Rardin D (1982) The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav 7:47–55. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(82)90024-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weiss BD, Mays MZ, Martz W, Castro KM, DeWalt DA, Pignone MP et al (2005) Quick assessment of literacy in primary care: the newest vital sign. Ann Fam Med 3:514–522. doi: 10.1370/afm.405 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Santos O, Oliveira A, Carvalho C, Lunet N, Azevedo A, Paiva D et al (2012) Self-administration of the Newest Vital Sign in Portuguese young adults: study of its internal reliability. Int J Behav Med 19:S189Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB (1990) Structured Clinican Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). American Psychiatric Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tavares M (1996) Entrevista clínica estruturada para o DSM-IV: Transtornos do eixo I-edição para pacientes (SCID-I/P 2.0). Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gudmundsson E (2009) Guidelines for translating and adapting psychological instruments. Nord Psychol 61:29–45. doi: 10.1027/1901-2276.61.2.29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hu L, Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model 6:1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Byrne BM (2010) Structural equation modelling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming, 2nd edn. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yu CY (2002) Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes. University of California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barrett P (2007) Structural equation modelling: Adjudging model fit. Pers Individ Differ 42:815–824. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kline RB (2005) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 2nd edn. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mustelin L, Kärkkäinen U, Kaprio J, Keski-Rahkonen A (2016) The Eating Disorder Inventory in the screening for DSM-5 binge eating disorder. Eat Behav 22:145–148. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.06.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Ridder D, Adriaanse M, Evers C, Verhoeven A (2014) Who diets? Most people and especially when they worry about food. Appetite 80:103–108. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.05.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pursey KM, Collins CE, Stanwell P, Burrows TL (2016) The stability of ‘food addiction’ as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale in a non-clinical population over 18-months. Appetite 96:533–538. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.10.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pepino MY, Stein RI, Eagon JC, Klein S (2014) Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss causes remission of food addiction in extreme obesity. Obesity 22:1792–1798. doi: 10.1002/oby.20797 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pedram P, Wadden D, Amini P, Gulliver W, Randell E, Cahill F et al (2013) Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population. PLoS One 8:e74832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074832 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bennett S, Dodge T (2007) Ethnic-racial differences in feelings of embarrassment associated with binge eating and fear of losing control. Int J Eat Disord 40:454–459. doi: 10.1002/eat.20374 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vitousek KB, Daly J, Heiser C (1991) Reconstructing the internal world of the eating-disordered individual: Overcoming distortion in self-report. Int J Eat Disord 10:647–666. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199111)10:6<647:AID-EAT2260100604>3.0.CO;2-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Torres
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marta Camacho
    • 3
  • Patrício Costa
    • 4
    • 5
    • 1
  • Gabriela Ribeiro
    • 3
    • 6
  • Osvaldo Santos
    • 7
    • 8
  • Filipa Mucha Vieira
    • 1
  • Isabel Brandão
    • 9
    • 10
  • Daniel Sampaio
    • 11
    • 12
  • Albino J. Oliveira-Maia
    • 3
    • 13
    • 14
    • 15
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da EducaçãoUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Center for PsychologyUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Champalimaud Clinical CentreChampalimaud Centre for the UnknownLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), Escola de Ciências da SaúdeUniversidade do MinhoBragaPortugal
  5. 5.ICVS/3B’s, PT Government Associate LaboratoryBragaPortugal
  6. 6.Lisbon Academic Medical CentreFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  7. 7.Instituto de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde PúblicaFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  8. 8.Instituto de Saúde AmbientalFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  9. 9.Department of PsychiatryCentro Hospitalar de S. JoãoPortoPortugal
  10. 10.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoPortoPortugal
  11. 11.Department of PsychiatryCentro Hospitalar de Lisboa NorteLisbonPortugal
  12. 12.Department of PsychiatryFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  13. 13.Department of Psychiatry and Mental HealthCentro Hospitalar de Lisboa OcidentalLisbonPortugal
  14. 14.NOVA School of Medicine | Faculdade de Ciências MédicasUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  15. 15.Champalimaud ResearchChampalimaud Centre for the UnknownLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations