Additional N supply improves grain yield in Triticale (× Triticosecale sp.) better than wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) under elevated CO2 environment
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The response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. PBW-550) and Triticale (a wheat and rye hybrid) were enhanced at elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen (N) nutrition. Both the crops were raised in plastic pots inside open top chambers under ambient CO2 (AC) and elevated CO2 (EC) levels and varying N supply, viz., N0 (optimum N), N1.5 (one and half times of optimum N) and N2 (twice the optimum N). Findings of the study showed that significant growth improvement in terms of leaf area, root and shoot biomass accumulation under elevated atmospheric CO2 at optimum and super optimal N nutrition, in both the crop species. Chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis as well as soluble sugars increased under elevated atmospheric CO2 and N nutrition, while soluble protein content and stomatal conductance decreased and no significant changes occurred in leaf starch under above treatments, in wheat as well as Triticale. Results also showed significantly higher plant biomass, grain yield and 1000 grain weight under elevated CO2 as compared with ambient conditions. Plant height and number of tillers increased in response to elevated CO2 and high N in both the crop species. Super optimal N supply showed larger increase in grain yield and 1000 grain weight of Triticale as compared to wheat variety, while increase in biological yield in response to higher N was more in wheat variety. The above findings suggest that addition of N supply under elevated CO2 environment, can enhance growth and grain yield more in Triticale than that of wheat.
KeywordsClimate change Elevated CO2 Photosynthesis Grain yield Triticale and wheat
The first author duly acknowledges the financial assistance in the form of the fellowship received from the University Grants Commission, India (Grant No. 2012-13/RGNF-2012-13-SC-MAH-20061). Facilities used at Divisions of Plant Physiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi are duly acknowledged. The suggestions and guidance given by Dr. Divya Shah are sincerely acknowledged.
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