Advertisement

Indian Journal of Plant Physiology

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 426–443 | Cite as

Alterations in photosynthetic capacity and morpho-histological features of leaf in alfalfa plants subjected to water deficit-stress in different soil types

  • Bardees M. Mickky
  • Muhammad A. Abbas
  • Omar A. El-Shhaby
Original Article

Abstract

Water deficit can greatly influence plant growth and development. A pot trial was conducted to study the impact of various levels of water deficit on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants grown in different soil types. The results elucidated that increasing drought level and/or sand proportion in the cultivation soil reduced leaf growth vigor as indicated by declined number of leaves per plant as well as less cumulative leaf biomass, area, specific area, relative water content and degree of succulence with corresponding increase in the cumulative degree of leaf sclerophylly. Leaf anatomical analysis revealed that drought increased leaf thickness and ground tissue thickness but reduced phloem, xylem and whole vascular bundle areas, as well as the number of xylem vessels and rays. In addition, transmission electron microscopic examination of leaves cleared that the shape of chloroplasts was irregular when droughted. Also, stress reduced the number of both chloroplasts per cell and starch grains per chloroplast as well as the area of individual chloroplasts and starch grains. Moreover, severe water deficit resulted in the appearance of plastoglobules within chloroplasts. Concerning pigment fractions, chlorophyll a, b and a + b as well as total pigments and photosystem II activity were all declined in water-unsatisfied plants. Meanwhile, stress enhanced the production of carotenoids and also increased the calculated chlorophyll a/b ratio. The results also showed that water deficit increased glucose, fructose, trehalose, sucrose and total soluble sugars but reduced the amount of polysaccharides and total carbohydrates in alfalfa plants.

Keywords

Alfalfa Water deficit Anatomy Ultrastructure Photosynthetic machinery Carbohydrates 

References

  1. Aldesuquy, H. S., Abo-Hamed, S. A., Abbas, M. A., & Elhakeem, A. H. (2012). Role of glycine betaine and salicylic acid in improving growth vigour and physiological aspects of droughted wheat cultivars. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 8, 149–171.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Saied, A. A. (2009). Physiological studies of some polyamines on wheat plants irrigated with waste water (Dissertation, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura).Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, M. N., Asch, F., Wu, Y., Jensen, C. R., Nsted, H., Mogensen, V. O., et al. (2002). Soluble invertase expression is an early target of drought stress during the critical, abortion-sensitive phase of young ovary development in maize. Journal of Plant Physiology, 130, 591–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, J. R., Frosta, E., Vidic, P. A., Kesslerc, F., & Staehelina, L. A. (2006). Plastoglobules are lipoprotein subcompartments of the chloroplast that are permanently coupled to thylakoid membranes and contain biosynthetic enzymes. Plant Cell, 18, 1693–1703.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Avramova, V., AbdElgawad, H., Zhang, Z., Fotschki, B., Casadevall, R., Vergauwen, L., et al. (2015). Drought induces distinct growth response, protection, and recovery mechanisms in the maize leaf growth zone. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169, 1382–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrs, H. D., & Weatherley, P. E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficit in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15, 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum, S. F., Tran, P. N., & Silk, W. K. (2000). Effects of salinity on xylem structure and water use in growing leaves of sorghum. New Phytologist, 146, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beadle, C. L. (1993). Growth analysis. In D. C. Hall, J. M. O. Scurlock, H. R. Bolhar, R. C. Leegod, & S. P. Long (Eds.), Photosynthesis and production in a changing environment: A field and laboratory manual. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, Y., Liu, L., Guo, Q., Zhu, Z., & Zhang, L. (2016). Effects of different water management options and fertilizer supply on photosynthesis, fluorescence parameters and water use efficiency of Prunella vulgaris seedlings. Journal of Biological Research, 49, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DaMatta, F. M., & Ramalho, J. D. C. (2006). Impacts of drought and temperature stress on coffee physiology and production: A review. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Devi, P. (2007). Principles and methods in plant molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics (4th ed.). India: Agrobios.Google Scholar
  12. Djanaguiraman, M., & Ramadass, R. (2004). Effect of salinity on chlorophyll content of rice genotypes. Agricultural Science Digest, 24, 178–181.Google Scholar
  13. Edwards, C., Read, J., & Sanson, G. (2000). Characterizing sclerophylly: Some mechanical properties of leaves from heath and forest. Oecologia, 123, 158–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elhakeem, A. H. (2008). Control of growth and productivity of droughted wheat cultivars by glycine betaine and salicylic acid (Dissertation, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura).Google Scholar
  15. El-Sawy, O. E. (2009). Protective effects of polyamines on wheat plants irrigated by seawater (Dissertation, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura).Google Scholar
  16. Fu, L., Bounelis, P., Dey, N., Browne, B. L., Marchase, R. B., & Bedwell, D. M. (1995). Posttranslational modification of phosphoglucomutase is regulated by galactose induction and glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology, 177, 3087–3094.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Garg, A. K., Kim, J. K., Owens, T. G., Ranwala, A. P., Choi, Y. D., Kochian, L. V., et al. (2002). Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 15898–15903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gianessi, L. P. (2009). The benefits of insecticide use: Alfalfa. Washington, DC: Crop Life Foundation.Google Scholar
  19. Hameed, M., Ashraf, M., & Naz, N. (2009). Anatomical adaptations to salinity in cogon grass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel] from the Salt Range. Pakistan. Plant Soil, 322, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamidi, H., & Safarnejad, A. (2010). Effect of drought stress on alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.) in germination stage. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 8, 705–709.Google Scholar
  21. Havaux, M. (2014). Carotenoid oxidation products as stress signals in plants. Plant Journal, 79, 597–606.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu, Y., Fromm, J., & Schmidhalter, U. (2005). Effect of salinity on tissue architecture in expanding wheat leaves. Planta, 220, 838–848.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Hülskamp, M., Schwab, B., Grini, P., & Schwarz, H. (2010). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of plant tissues. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols.  https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot4958.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaleel, A. C., Azooz, M. M., & Panneerselvam, R. (2009). Treatment with different sodium salts alters growth and photosynthetic pigment constituents in Withania somnifera. Global Journal of Molecular Sciences, 4, 6–9.Google Scholar
  25. Jaleel, A. C., Manivannan, P., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Gopi, R., Somasundaram, R., et al. (2007). Water deficit stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Catharanthus roseus: Effects on oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 60, 110–116.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jamei, R., Heidari, R., Khara, J., & Zare, S. (2008). The interaction effects of flooding and kinetin on growth criteria, chlorophyll content and 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in corn seedlings. Turkish Journal of Biology, 32, 253–257.Google Scholar
  27. Kim, J., Mahe, A., Brangeon, J., & Prioul, J. L. (2000). A maize vacuolar invertase, IVR2, is induced by water stress: Organ/tissue specificity and diurnal modulation of expression. Journal of Plant Physiology, 124, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kissimon, J. (1999). Analysis of the photosynthetic pigment composition. In International workshop and training course on microalgal biology and biotechnology, Mosonmagyarouar (pp. 13–26).Google Scholar
  29. Krasensky, J., & Jonak, C. (2011). Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. Journal of Experimental Botany.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kwon, M. Y., & Woo, S. Y. (2015). Plants’ responses to drought and shade environments. African Journal of Biotechnology, 15, 29–31.Google Scholar
  31. Laurentin, A., & Edwards, C. A. (2003). A microtiter modification anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetric assay for glucose-basehydrates. Analytical Biochemistry, 315, 143–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lemoine, R. (2000). Sucrose transporters in plants: Update on function and structure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1465, 246–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu, F., Christian, R. J., & Mathias, N. A. (2004). Drought stress effect on carbohydrate concentration in soybean leaves and pods during early reproductive development: Its implication in altering pod set. Field Crop Research, 86, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu, S. C., Jin, J. Q., Ma, J. Q., Yao, M. Z., Ma, C. L., Li, C. F., et al. (2016). Transcriptomic analysis of tea plant responding to drought stress and recovery. PLoS ONE.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147306.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Mahalingam, R., & Fedoroff, N. (2003). Stress response, cell death and signalling: The many faces of reactive oxygen species. Physiologia Plantarum, 119, 56–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maiti, R., Satya, P., Rajkumar, D., & Ramaswamy, A. (2012). Crop plant anatomy (pp. 15–17). Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  37. Manivannan, P., Jaleel, C. A., Sankar, B., Kishorekumar, A., Somasundaram, R., Lakshmanan, G. M., et al. (2007). Growth biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuus L. as induced by drought stress. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 59, 141–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McElroy, J. S., & Kopsell, D. A. (2009). Physiological role of carotenoids and other antioxidants in plants and application to turf grass stress management. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37, 327–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mekki, B., Hussien, H., & Salem, H. (2015). Role of glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in alleviation of drought stress in cotton plants. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8, 1573–1581.Google Scholar
  40. Mickky, B. M. (2010). Mitigatory effect of kinetin and spermine on seawater-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants (Dissertation, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura).Google Scholar
  41. Mickky, B. M. (2012). Biotechnological aspects of economic maximization and characterization of medically-active phytochemicals from Medicago sativa plants (Dissertation, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura).Google Scholar
  42. Mickky, B. M. (2016). Could sodium benzoate enhance broad bean salinity tolerance? I. Seedling vigor, membrane features, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 6, 313–328.Google Scholar
  43. Munne-Bosch, S., & Alegre, L. (2004). Die and let live: Leaf senescence contributes to plant survival under drought stress. Functional Plant Biology, 31, 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Munns, R. (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant and Cell Physiology, 25, 239–250.Google Scholar
  45. Munns, R., Guo, J. M., Passioura, J. B., & Cramer, G. R. (2000). Leaf water status controls day-time but not daily rates of leaf expansion in salt-treated barley. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27, 949–957.Google Scholar
  46. Netondo, G. W., Onyango, J. C., & Beck, E. (2004). Sorghum and salinity. II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sciences, 44, 806–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Parés, J., Arizaleta, M., Sanabria, M. E., & García, Y. G. (2008). Effect of salinity levels on the stomatal density, stomatal index and leaf thickness of Carica papaya L. Acta Botánica Venezuelica, 31, 27–34.Google Scholar
  48. Rosa, M., Prado, C., Podazza, G., Interdonato, R., González, J. A., Hilal, M., et al. (2009). Soluble sugars-metabolism, sensing and abiotic stress: A complex network in the life of plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 4, 388–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roussos, P. A., Tsantili, E., & Pontikis, C. A. (2005). Responses of jojoba explants to different salinity levels during the proliferation stage in vitro. Indian Crop Production, 23, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sadasivam, S., & Manickam, A. (1996). Biochemical methods (2nd ed.). New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited.Google Scholar
  51. Sam, O., Ramirez, C., Coronado, M. J., Testillano, P. S., & Risueno, M. C. (2003). Changes in tomato leaves induced by NaCl stress: Leaf organization and cell ultrastructure. Biologia Plantarum, 47, 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sankar, B., Karthishwaran, K., & Somasundaram, R. (2013). Leaf anatomical changes in peanut plants in relation to drought stress with or without paclobutrazol and abscisic acid. Journal of Phytology, 5, 25–29.Google Scholar
  53. Scott, N., & Greenberg, B. (1995). Measurement of photosynthetic activity in plant cell fractions. In: C. A. Goldman (Ed.), Tested studies for laboratory teaching (Vol. 16). Proceedings of the 16th workshop/conference of the association for biology laboratory education (ABLE) (pp. 71–80).Google Scholar
  54. Shah, S. H. (2007). Effects of salt stress on mustard as affected by gibberellic acid application. General and Applied Plant Physiology, 33, 97–106.Google Scholar
  55. Shani, U., & Ben-Gal, A. (2005). Long-term response of grapevines to salinity: Osmotic effects and ion toxicity. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 56, 148–154.Google Scholar
  56. Shanmugam, S., Kumar, T. S., & Selvam, K. P. (2010). Laboratory handbook on biochemistry. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited.Google Scholar
  57. Shao, R., Xin, L., Mao, J., Li, L., Kang, G., & Yang, Q. (2015). Physiological, ultrastructural and proteomic responses in the leaf of maize seedlings to polyethylene glycol-stimulated severe water deficiency. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 21606–21625.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Small, E. (2011). Alfalfa and relatives: Evolution and classification of Medicago. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada.Google Scholar
  59. Smethurst, C. F., Gill, W. M., & Shabala, S. (2009). Using excised leaves to screen lucerne for salt tolerance: Physiological and cytological evidence. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 4, 39–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. VandenLangenberg, K. M., Bethke, P. C., & Nienhuis, J. (2012). Patterns of fructose, glucose, and sucrose accumulation in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pods. Journal of Hortsciences, 47, 874–878.Google Scholar
  61. Welch, M. E., & Rieseberg, L. H. (2002). Habitat divergence between a homoploid hybrid sunflower species, Helianthus paradoxus (Asteraceae), and its progenitors. American Journal of Botany, 89, 472–479.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Witkoswski, E. T. F., & Lamont, B. B. (1991). Leaf specific mass confounds leaf density and thickness. Oecologia, 84, 362–370.Google Scholar
  63. Xian-Zheng, Z. (1992). Research methods of crop physiology (pp. 148–150). Beijing: China Agricultural Press.Google Scholar
  64. Younis, M. E., El-Shahaby, O. A., Nemat-Alla, M. M., & El-Bastawisy, Z. M. (2003). Kinetin alleviates the influence of water logging and salinity on growth and affects the production of plant growth regulators in Vigna sinensis and Zea mays. Agronomie, 23, 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhu, J. K. (2002). Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 53, 247–273.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Zlatev, Z. S., & Yordanov, I. T. (2005). Effects of soil drought on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in bean plants. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 30, 3–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Plant Physiology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations