Biomarkers in Saliva and Serum Samples for Periodontal Disease and Interactions with Systemic Health
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Purpose of Review
This review examines the current literature on the potential of systemic biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring periodontal diseases and also their role in the interaction with systemic diseases.
Numerous potential biomarkers in saliva or serum samples have been investigated in mainly cross-sectional, but also in some longitudinal studies. Periodontal diseases are multifactorial in nature and clinical findings are the result of the interactions between microorganisms and host response. Moreover, systemic health, genetic factors, psychological stress, and environmental factors can have significant impact on the clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is not realistic to find a single biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal diseases. However, there are enzymes and inflammatory cytokines that may discriminate healthy periodontium from gingivitis/periodontitis and some others may partly explain the mechanisms of interaction between periodontal disease and systemic diseases.
Recent publications have revealed some significant associations between various potential biomarkers and clinical periodontal parameters, but larger scale and intervention studies are required to better clarify the issue.
KeywordsPeriodontal diseases Biomarkers Saliva Serum/plasma
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any new studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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