Crown Lengthening Procedures for Functional and Esthetic Purposes

  • Pinelopi XenoudiEmail author
  • Anastasios Karydis
Clinical Periodontics (Y Stathopoulou, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Clinical Periodontics


Purpose of Review

The crown lengthening (CL) procedure is one of the most common procedures in daily dental practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the newer techniques along with parameters that need to be considered in the decision-making process for optimal functional and esthetic results.

Recent Findings

The parameters that need to be considered during the decision-making process for CL include the patient’s restorative needs and esthetic expectations, supracrestal attachment, level of bone, and gingival phenotype. While gingivectomy with or without osseous resection is the traditional approach, more recently less invasive procedures have been used including dental lasers, orthodontic extrusion, and lip repositioning.


Correct evaluation of the patient’s anatomical factors, restorative and esthetic needs should lead to the utilization of the most appropriate procedure. Adequate time for healing should be allowed prior to the final restoration for the most stable and predictable long-term result.


Crown lengthening Etiology Laser Orthodontic extrusion Lip repositioning 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Xenoudi reports non-financial support from Biohorizons, and personal fees from Millennium Dental Technologies, outside the submitted work.

Anastasios Karydis declares no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Periodontology, Department of Orofacial Sciences, School of DentistryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PeriodontologyUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA

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