Current Protocols for the Treatment of Peri-implantitis
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Purpose of Review
Peri-implant diseases are becoming a major problem in modern dentistry. A clear understanding of the pathogenesis of peri-implant diseases may provide key aspects for decision-making on their approach and obtaining predictable results. The purpose of the present article is to provide a narrative review of current protocols (2015–present) used for treatment of peri-implantitis.
Current evidence reflects the level of diagnostic and therapeutic complexity; and multifactorial effect of conditions associated with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Non-surgical therapy, by means of mechanical detoxification with or without adjuncts, has proven somehow effective for the treatment of mild forms of peri-implantitis. Conversely, open flap mechanical debridement with resective and/or regenerative treatment modalities have been advocated more towards moderate-to-severe forms. There is a lack of evidence to support the use of adjuncts (e.g. systemic/locally-delivered antibiotics, antimicrobial mouth rinses, biologic agents, laser therapy, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, soft tissue augmentation) with conventional mechanical therapy upon the long-term outcomes after the peri-implantitis treatment.
Emerging long-term results found surgical outcomes after peri-implantitis therapy to remain unpredictable in arresting inflammation, but effective in preventing further bone destruction and implant loss. In the presence of further peri-implant breakdown, the need for rescue therapy and implant removal was observed in retrospective and prospective studies. To the present date, inconclusive evidence exists to support a gold standard protocol for an effective surgical implant detoxification.
Keywords(MeSH) Dental implants Peri-implantitis Inflammation Disease management
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Carlos Garaicoa-Pazmino, Khaled Sinjab, and Hom-Lay Wang each declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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