Reciprocal Interactions Among OSA, Obesity, and Sleep Duration
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Purpose of Review
Obesity has become a serious public health concern worldwide in recent decades. Obesity is the most important factor in and a predictor of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and as high as 70% of patients with OSA are obese. The purpose of this review was to investigate reciprocal interactions among OSA, obesity, and sleep duration from recent studies.
It was thought that chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation over the years in persons with sleep apnea could lead to changes in central control of energy regulation. There is an emerging concept that OSA itself may in turn reinforce the obese state. Given the plausible reciprocal relationship between obesity and OSA, treating OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) could be thought to act against weight gain as previously reported. However, recent studies revealed that CPAP therapy actually resulted in weight gain. On the other hand, it has been discussed that short sleep duration induced obesity through appetite-related hormones such as leptin and ghrelin. In addition, it has been reported that OSA induced short sleep duration.
Thus, to consider the relationship between OSA and obesity, it is important to know the reciprocal relationships among OSA, obesity, and short sleep duration.
KeywordsObstructive sleep apnea Obesity Sleep duration CPAP
We thank all of the collaborators in our work. This study was supported by grants from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Intractable Respiratory Diseases and Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group, Welfare Sciences Research Grants, Research on Region Medical from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, and AMED under Grant Number JP18ek0210096. The Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine is funded by endowments from Philips Respironics, Teijin Pharma, Fukuda Denshi, Fukuda Lifetec Keiji, and Resmed to Kyoto University.
Compliance with Ethics Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kazuo Chin reports grants from The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, grants from Respiratory Failure Research Group, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan, grants from AMED, grants from The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan, grants from The Intractable Respiratory Diseases and Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan, during the conduct of the study; grants and personal fees from Philips Respironics, grants and personal fees from Teijin Pharma, grants and personal fees from Fukuda Denshi, grants and personal fees from Fukuda Lifetec Keiji, personal fees from KYORIN Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., personal fees from Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline, personal fees from MSD, grants and personal fees from Resmed, personal fees from Eisai Co., Ltd., outside the submitted work.
Ryo Tachikawa reports personal fees from Philips Respironics and Teijin Pharma outside of the submitted work.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance, •• Of major importance
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