Advances and Challenges in Oral Biofilm Control
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Purpose of Review
The paper aims to critically study the literature published over the past 3 years as relevant to oral biofilm control. The emphasis of this review is the interests and importance of new findings, seeking the following answers: (i) what is the major challenge in oral biofilm control?, (ii) what are the new anti-biofilm approaches?, and (iii) what are the further researches?
In addition to mechanical plaque removal and the use of chemical agents against pathogenic biofilm, there is a need for development of new anti-biofilm approaches. The majority of the new studies aiming to control oral biofilm have been performed with the characterization of the extracellular matrix components. Exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (eDNA), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and lipopolysaccharides have been identified in the matrices of bacterial biofilms and are considered the current targets to oral biofilm control.
The extracellular matrix is essential for the existence of the biofilm and by its virulence both in bacterial and fungal pathogens. The better understanding of the biomechanical properties of the EPS matrix is the main advance and is leading to new chemical and/or biological approaches to remove or disorganize cariogenic biofilms. Recently, researches are focusing on the extracellular matrix for oral biofilm control with further clinical applicability.
KeywordsOral biofilms Oral microbiota Extracellular matrix Biofilm control Dental caries Oral fungi
This work was supported by a São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) scholarship 2016/00256-3 to B.H.D.P. and by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) scholarship 6483-15-1 to C.A.G.A.C.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of Importance •• Of major importance
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