Current Oral Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 293–301 | Cite as

Current Developments in Regenerative Endodontics

  • Sahng G. Kim
  • Bill Kahler
  • Louis M. LinEmail author
Orodental Regenerative Medicine (M Bartold, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Orodental Regenerative Medicine


This review outlines the biological basis and clinical protocols used currently in regenerative endodontic procedures and discusses future directions in pulp regeneration appraches. Since the discovery of dental stem cells capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and revascularization/regenerative endodontic therapy with the potential of promoting thickening of the canal walls and continued root development of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps, the study of pulp tissue engineering or pulp tissue regeneration has taken a giant step forward in biological and clinical endodontics. The biological concept of regenerative endodontics involves the triad of stem cells, scaffold, and signaling molecules. In preclinical studies, researchers are looking for mesenchymal stem cells not only capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells but also highly angiogenic/vasculogenic and neurogenic for complete pulp regeneration. Tremendous efforts are also dedicated to search for three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds to enhance stem cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as tissue structure support. In clinical trials, besides immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp, regenerative endodontic therapy has been employed to treat mature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps, teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after primary root canal therapy, and traumatized teeth associated horizontal root fractures, root resorption, and avulsion.


Dental stem cells Immature teeth Necrotic pulps Pulp tissue regeneration Regenerative endodontics Revascularization 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sahng G. Kim, Bill Kahler, and Louis M. Lin declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

The article does not contain any studies with human and animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endodontics, College of Dental MedicineColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.School of DentistryUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Endodontics, College of DentistryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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