Current Oral Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 111–116 | Cite as

The Utility of Chewing Gum in Treating White Spot Lesions

  • Yuichi KitasakoEmail author
  • Alireza Sadr
  • Yasushi Shimada
  • Yasunori Sumi
  • Junji Tagami
Cariology (J Tagami, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cariology


White spot lesions (WSL) are early non-cavitated carious lesions where the subsurface mineral loss has produced changes in the optical properties of the enamel. These lesions are visibly detectable as the loss of translucency results in a white appearance of the enamel surface. WSL can be arrested or reversed if the cariogenic challenge is sufficiently controlled or therapeutic agents are applied to promote enamel remineralization. Sugar-free chewing gum has been shown to promote the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ. Recently, manufacturers have been adding bioavailable calcium and fluoride in various forms to enhance anticariogenic and remineralization potential. This review describes the use of chewing gum which includes bioavailable agents for remineralization of WSL. Chewing gum is a noninvasive clinical approach for WSL remineralization, but further clinical studies are needed. Providing evidence on the effectiveness of these new noninvasive treatment approaches using technologies such as optical coherence tomography remains a priority in dental research.


Chewing gum Enamel OCT Remineralization White spot lesion 



This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No.25462946) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and a Research Grant for Longevity Sciences (21A-8) from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yuichi Kitasako, Alireza Sadr, Yasushi Shimada, Yasunori Sumi, and Junji Tagami declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi Kitasako
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alireza Sadr
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yasushi Shimada
    • 1
  • Yasunori Sumi
    • 4
  • Junji Tagami
    • 1
  1. 1.Cariology and Operative Dentistry Department, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityBunkyo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Dental clinicMinistry of Foreign AffairsTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Biomimetics Biomaterials Biophotonics Biomechanics & Technology LaboratoryUniversity of Washington School of DentistrySeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of Oral and Dental Surgery, Department of Advanced Medicine, National Hospital for Geriatric MedicineNational Center for Geriatrics and GerontologyObuJapan

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