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Current Pharmacology Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 345–358 | Cite as

Sandalwood Oil for the Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer: Mechanistic Insights, Anti-inflammatory, and In Vivo Anticancer Potential

  • Rachita Jain
  • Sujit NairEmail author
Cancer Chemoprevention (R Agarwal and S Yu, Section Editors)
  • 19 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cancer Chemoprevention

Abstract

There is an increasing incidence of skin cancer across the world. The World Health Organization reports that the global incidence of melanoma will continue to rise with increasing depletion of the ozone layer and consequent UV irradiation. The natural product sandalwood oil from genus Santalum (Family Santalaceae) and its constituent alpha-santalol have been reported to exert chemopreventive effects against skin cancers as well as prostate, head and neck, and breast cancers. The anticancer effects are mediated via modulation of MAPK, AP-1, beta-catenin and PI3K/Akt pathways, upregulation of p21, and activation of caspases/PARP. Furthermore, sandalwood oil exerts anti-inflammatory activities via prostaglandin E2, IL-1beta, inhibition of NF-kappaB, and 5-lipoxygenase. Other therapeutic activities in eczema, psoriasis, radiation dermatitis, antifungal, etc. have also been reported. Sandalwood oil has acceptable safety and is well-tolerated. Taken together, given the chemopreventive potential of sandalwood oil, future clinical trials are warranted to investigate its use as an adjunct to chemotherapy or immunotherapy for skin cancers.

Keywords

Natural product Sandalwood oil α-Santalol Skin cancer Anti-inflammatory Chemoprevention 

Abbreviations

A431 cells

Human epidermoid carcinoma cell line

AP-1

Activator protein 1

BCC

Basal cell carcinoma

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

DHA

Docosahexenoic acid

DMBA

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene

GPCR

G protein-coupled receptor

GST

Glutathione-S-transferase

HaCaT

Cultured human keratinocyte cells

HUVEC

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

IL

Interleukin

J82

Human bladder carcinoma cell line

LC3

Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3

LD50

Lethal dose (in 50% of population)

LNCaP

Lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (prostate cancer cells)

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MCF-7

Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (breast cancer cells)

MCF-10A

Normal mammary epithelial cells

MDA-MB 231 cells

Triple-negative breast cancer cell line

MDCK

Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

ODC

Ornithine decarboxylase

p53

Tumor suppressor protein

PC-3

Prostate cancer cell line

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SCC

Squamous cell carcinoma

TPA

12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate

UV

Ultraviolet

UROtsa

Human urothelial cell line

VAS

Visual analog scale

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR2

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Viral Bakhai of ViralAnimationz (https://viralanimationz.wixsite.com/website) for his assistance in drawing the electronic version of Fig. 3.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology ManagementSVKM’s NMIMS UniversityMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of PharmacyUniversity of MumbaiMumbaiIndia

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