Carnosine Effect on Advanced Lipoxidation End-Products: a Brief Review on Tissues
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Purpose of review
Advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) are defined as adducts and cross-links that are made by the reaction of produced reactive carbonyl species in peroxidation with DNA, proteins, and aminophospholipids in a nonenzymatic process. Carnosine is synthesized by carnosine synthase and is found in the brain and muscular tissues that acts as an antioxidant compound. Regarding the increased prevalence of chronic diseases and the direct effect of oxidative stress, we considered the possibility of the effect of carnosine on advanced lipoxidation end-products in various problems.
Data for this review were obtained electronically from PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. English articles were analyzed and the publication year of conducted studies was considered from 2005. Twenty related articles were retrieved on carnosine effects on ALEs. These studies were divided into eight categories of tissue problems. All articles indicated that carnosine could diminish the ALE level in tissues.
The results of this study showed that carnosine has the potential ability to reduce the plasma and tissue levels of the ALEs and oxidative stress, and can be effective in oxidative-related diseases.
KeywordsCarnosine Advanced lipoxidation end-products Lipoxidation Oxidative stress Malondialdehyde
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors reported no conflict of interest.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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