Advertisement

Pediatric cystic diseases of the kidney

  • Federica FerroEmail author
  • Norberto Vezzali
  • Evi Comploj
  • Elena Pedron
  • Marco Di Serafino
  • Francesco Esposito
  • Piernicola Pelliccia
  • Eugenio Rossi
  • Massimo Zeccolini
  • Gianfranco Vallone
Pictorial Essay
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Pediatric renal cystic diseases include a variety of hereditary or non-hereditary conditions. Numerous classifications exist and new data are continuously published. Ultrasound is the primary technique for evaluating kidneys in children: conventional and high-resolution US allows a detailed visualization of renal parenchyma and of number, size and location of the cysts, hence representing the most important diagnostic imaging technique for the first diagnosis and follow-up of these young patients. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the spectrum of renal cystic lesions in children from simple, complex or malignant single cysts to the several poly/multicystic kidney diseases.

Keywords

Cystic renal disease Kidney Neonatal Pediatric Ultrasound 

Sommario

La patologia cistica renale in età pediatrica è costituita da svariate condizioni ereditarie e non. La letteratura propone diverse classificazioni, in continua evoluzione. L’ecografia rappresenta la prima metodica per la valutazione del rene nel neonato e nel bambino: l’esame con metodica tradizionale e con sonde ad alta risoluzione consente uno studio dettagliato del parenchima renale e delle cisti per numero, dimensioni e localizzazione. L’ecografia è pertanto il cardine nell’iter diagnostico e nel follow-up di questi piccoli pazienti. Obiettivo di questo lavoro è rivedere le peculiarità delle lesioni cistiche renali in età pediatrica: dalla cisti singola, semplice o complessa, allo spettro delle patologie multi/policistiche.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author Federica Ferro declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Norberto Vezzali declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Evi Comploj declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Elena Pedron declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Marco Di Serafino declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Francesco Esposito declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Piernicola Pelliccia declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Eugenio Rossi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Massimo Zeccolini declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Gianfranco Vallone declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

References

  1. 1.
    Riccabona M, Ring E, Avni F (2018) Imaging in renal agenesis, dysplasia, hypoplasia, and cystic diseases of the kidney. In: Riccabona M (ed) Pediatric urogenital radiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 553–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gupta I, Bitzan M (2104) Cystic renal disease. In: Manual of pediatric nephrology. Springer, Berlin, pp 249–262Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paliwalla M, Park K (2014) A practical guide to urinary tract ultrasound in a child: pearls and pitfalls. Ultrasound 22:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chung E, Conran R, Schroder JW, Rohena-Quinquilla I, Rooks V (2014) Pediatric polycystic kidney disease and other ciliopathies: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 34:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    MacRae K, Chisthi A (2014) Cystic renal disease. In: Chisti AS et al (eds) Kidney and urinary tract disease in the newborn. Springer, Berlin, pp 263–274Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karmazyn B, Tawadros A, Delaney L, Marine M, Cain M, Rink R (2015) Ultrasound classification of solitary renal cysts in children. J Pediatr Urol 11:149 e1–149 e6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koutlidis N, Joyeux L, Mejean N, Sapin E (2015) Management of simple renal cyst in children: French multicenter experience of 36 cases and review of the literature. J Pediatr Urol 11:113–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bayram MT, Alaygut D, Soylu A, Serdaroglu E, Cakmakci H, Kavukcu S (2014) Clinical and radiological course of simple renal cysts in children. Urology 83(2):433–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wulfsohn MA (1980) Pyelocaliceal diverticula. J Urol 123:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karmazyn B, Kaefer M, Jennings G, Nirmala R, Raske ME (2010) Caliceal diverticulum in pediatric patients: the spectrum of imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol 41:1369–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bosniak AM (2012) The Bosniak renal cyst classification: 25 years later. Radiology 262(3):781–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wallis C, Lorenzo Afarhat W, Bagli D, Khoury A, Pippi Salle J (2008) Risk assessment of incidentally detected complex renal cysts in children: potential role for a modification of the Bosniak classification. J Urol 189:317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sidhu P, Cantisani V, Dietrich C et al (2017) The EFSUMB Guidelines and recommendations for the clinical practice of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in non-hepatic applications: update 2017. Ultraschall Med 2018(39):e2–e44Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riccabona M, Lobo ML, Augdal TA et al (2018) European Society of Paediatric Radiology Abdominal Imaging Task Force recommendations in paediatric uroradiology, part X: how to perform paediatric gastrointestinal ultrasonography, use gadolinium as a contrast agent in children, follow up paediatric testicular microlithiasis, and an update on paediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol 48:1528–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dillman J, Trout A, Smith E, Towbin A (2017) Hereditary renal cystic disorders: imaging of the kidney and beyond. Radiographics 37:924–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dermentzoglou V, Grigoraki V, Zarifi M (2018) Contemporary concepts and imaging findings in paediatric cystic Kidney disease. Hell J Radiol 3(2):65–79Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin C, Tsai J, Sheu J, Lu H, Chang B (2010) Segmental multicystic dysplastic kidney in children: clinical presentation, imaging finding, management, and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 45:1856–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeon A, Cramer B, Walsch E, Pushpanathan C (1999) A spectrum of segmental multicystic renal dysplasia. Pediatr Radiol 29:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Verghese P, Miyashita Y (2014) Neonatal polycistic kidney disease. Clin Perinat 41:543–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Patriquin H (1985) Medullary sponge kidney in childhood. AJR 145:315–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lucaya J, Enriquez G, Nieto J (1993) Renal calcification in patient with ARPKD: prevalence and cause. AJR 160:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Turkbey B, Ocak I, Daryanani K, Font-Montgomery E, Lukose L, Byrant J (2009) Autosomal recessive polycistic kidney disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis (ARPKD/CHF). Pediatr Radiol 39:100–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Traubici J, Daneman A (2005) High-resolution renal sonography in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. AJR 184:1630–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vester U, Kranz B, Hoyer PF (2010) The diagnostic value of ultrasound in cystic kidney diseases. Pediatr Nephrol 25:231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Casper K, Donnelly L, Chen B, Bissler J (2002) Tuberous sclerosis complex: renal imaging findings. Radiology 225:452–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Ultrasonologia in Medicina e Biologia (SIUMB) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federica Ferro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Norberto Vezzali
    • 1
  • Evi Comploj
    • 2
  • Elena Pedron
    • 3
  • Marco Di Serafino
    • 4
  • Francesco Esposito
    • 5
  • Piernicola Pelliccia
    • 6
  • Eugenio Rossi
    • 5
  • Massimo Zeccolini
    • 5
  • Gianfranco Vallone
    • 7
  1. 1.Radiology DepartmentComprensorio Sanitario di BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  2. 2.Urology DepartmentComprensorio Sanitario di BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  3. 3.Pediatric Intensive Care UnitComprensorio Sanitario di BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  4. 4.Ospedale CardarelliNaplesItaly
  5. 5.AORN Santobono PausiliponNaplesItaly
  6. 6.Pediatric DepartmentUniversity of ChietiChietiItaly
  7. 7.Radiology DepartmentFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations