Manifestations of Mycobacterium marinum in the Immunocompromised Host
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Purpose of Review
Atypical Mycobacterium infections are occasionally encountered in clinical practice. As a result of immune function modulation in some particular populations (i.e., transplant, immunotherapies for chronic rheumatological diseases, chronic steroid therapy), there has been an increase in the number of diagnosed cases with atypical Mycobacterium, in particular M. marinum, associated with a history of exposure to natural or artificial water systems. The aim of this study is to review recent clinical presentations, risk factors, and management of M. marinum infections in immunocompromised individuals.
M. marinum exposure may potentially cause skin and soft tissue infections leading to important morbidity with sometimes life-threatening complications among immunocompromised hosts. The diagnosis of this infection is frequently delayed by months due to the often-atypical clinical presentations. A common immunosuppression associated with infection is TNF inhibition secondary to novel TNF inhibitors. These patients often present with infection within the nose. This atypical clinical presentation, in contrast to the classic “fish tank granuloma” hand lesion, may be related to immunosuppressive factors.
Increasing awareness of this particular nontuberculous mycobacterial infection among physicians caring for patients with potential exposure to aquatic environments may reduce the time of diagnosis to treatment and avoid further complications.
KeywordsMycobacterium marinum Skin lesions Immunocompromised host
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Annabelle Jones and Luis A. Marcos declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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